Die opvoedkundige begeleiding van die depressiewe adolessent binne gesins– en skoolverband
Joubert, Hendrik Gerhardus
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Recent research indicates that depression in childhood and adolescence exists, and that contributory factors are on the increase. Social problems like poverty, unemployment, and political change have led to a general feeling of helplessness and insecurity. Adolescence is characteristically a time of immense change in the physical, emotional, cognitive, moral, religious, and social areas of the adolescent. The above-mentioned factors, make the adolescent vulnerable, and a prime target for depressive feelings. Some writers view reactive depression, as a general reaction during the emancipation of an adolescent. The family and school, jointly forms an integral part of the adolescents' total lifestyle, and the role of the parent and educationalist in the guidance of the depressed adolescent should be viewed closely. Taking into account, the vulnerability, that the family experiences in present times, the necessary support for the adolescent, is often sadly lacking. It is therefore imperative, that parents and educators be made aware of, and be enabled to offer, the necessary support and guidance. The purpose of the research was to investigate a variety of guidance techniques from the literature, to evaluate their practical implementation as well as their educational implications; to compare and identify support systems that can be successfully applied. The research also evaluates the feasibility of involving both the family and school in support-system programmes. Chapter two highlights the nature and mannerisms of the adolescent, in the family and school environment, with specific reference to development and vulnerability, in relation to depressive feelings. Chapter three focuses on the identification of depression during adolescence, as well as the incidence, reasons and manifestation of symptoms. Chapter four discusses and evaluates various approaches, with regards to support of the depressed adolescent, in relation to practicability, both in the family and at school. With regards to the literature study, it would seem that an eclectic approach, in the form of group counselling programmes, and parental guidance programmes be implemented. Following the literature study chapter five focuses attention on the empirical research. The following steps were undertaken: The identification of twenty depressive adolescents, who qualify, according to the CDI (Children's Depression Inventory). The above were selected at random, according to gender, and the intensity of depressive feelings, and then divided into three separate guidance groups. Following the guidance programmes, the groups were exposed to two post-test trials, the results of which were compared with each other. With regards to the results of the different guidance groups in Chapter six, it is evident that all three guidance programmes were successful. The combined programme where the adolescents were exposed to both a group counselling programme, and the parents to a parental guidance programme, showed the best results. Followed by the group that were exposed only to group counselling. Although the group, whose parents only had exposure to the parental guidance programme, showed a decline in depressive feelings, it was not as dramatic as the decline in depressive feelings in the above-mentioned guidance groups. Following the investigation it becomes apparent that the teacher in general, as well as the Head of Department: Educational Guidance/Guidance teacher, has an important role to play in the guidance of the depressed adolescent. Parents should, with the necessary support and guidance from the above-mentioned personnel be able to adapt their parenting styles to ease the depressive feelings in their adolescents.
- Education