Artemisinin–quinoline hybrids : design, synthesis and antimalarial activity
Vlok, Martha Carolina
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Introduction - Malaria is a major global health problem, with more than 500 million reported cases and at least 1 million deaths each year. The main problem with malaria control is the emerging drug resistance. Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) developed widespread resistance to antimalarial drugs such as chloroquine (CQ) and mefloquine, but not to the artemisinins. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommended artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in all chloroquine resistance areas. However, P. falciparum has recently started to display resistance to these ACTs, highlighting the need for new chemotherapeutic approaches for the treatment of P. falciparum infections. Aims - The aims of this study were: (i) to design and synthesise a new series of antimalarial hybrid drugs, consisting of dihydroartemisinin (DHA) and aminoquinoline moieties bound covalently through different, very distinctive linkers; (ii) to determine the in vitro antiplasmodial activity and cytotoxicity of the synthesised series; (iii) to ascertain whether the in vitro antiplasmodial activity of the promising compounds would be carried over in vivo against Plasmodium vinckei (P. vinckei); and, (iv) to obtain an indication of the pharmacokinetic properties of this class of antimalarial drugs by performing snapshot pharmacokinetic analysis. Methods - DHA was coupled via an aminoethylether bond to various aminoquinolines to give hybrids and hybrid-dimers. CQ-susceptible (D10 and 3D7) and CQ-resistant (Dd2) strains of P. falciparum were used to determine the in vitro antiplasmodial activity. In vitro cytotoxicity was assessed using a mammalian cell-line (Chinese Hamster Ovarian, CHO). The antiproliferative activity of the hybrid-dimers was tested against three cell lines; renal adenocarcinoma (TK-10), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and melanoma (UACC-62). P. vinckei-infected mice were treated with the hybrid drugs for four days at a dosage of 0.8 mg/kg, 2.5 mg/kg, 7.5 mg/kg or 15 mg/kg intraperitoneally (ip) or orally (po), with 2.7 mg/kg, 8.3 mg/kg, 25 mg/kg or 50 mg/kg, in order to determine their antimalarial activity. A snapshot oral and intravenous (IV) pharmacokinetic study was performed. Results - All compounds were obtained as the 10-β-isomers and were isolated as the oxalate salts. Low nanomolar in vitro antiplasmodial activities were displayed by several compounds in this series, with IC50 values ranging from 5.15 to 29.5 nM, in comparison with the values of 2.09–5.11 nM and 21.54–157.90 nM for each of DHA and CQ respectively. All compounds displayed good selectivity towards P. falciparum in vitro (selectivity index (SI) ≥ 20). Two of the hybrids, featuring non-methylated and methylated two-carbon diaminoalkyl linkers, exerted potent in vivo antimalarial activities, with ED50 values of 1.1 and 1.4 mg/kg by ip route and 12 and 16 mg/kg po, respectively. Long-term monitoring of parasitaemia showed a complete cure of mice (without recrudescence) at 15 mg/kg ip and at 50 mg/kg po for these two hybrids, whereas artesunate was able to provide a complete cure only at 30 mg/kg ip and 80 mg/kg po. Conclusions - These compounds may provide a lead into a new class of antimalarial drugs so badly needed for treatment of resistant strains. Despite shorter half-lives and moderate oral bioavailability in comparison with DHA, two of the compounds of this series were able to cure malaria in mice at very low dosages, implicating extremely active metabolites. The optimum linker length for antimalarial activity was found to be a diaminoalkyl linker consisting of two carbon atoms, either unmethylated or bearing a single methyl group.
- Health Sciences