Indonesian leadership styles: a mixed-methods approach
Suryani, Angela O.
Van de Vijver, Alphonsius Josephus Rachel
Poortinga, Ype H.
Setiadi, Bernadette N.
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Indonesian leadership characteristics were examined in three studies, using mixed methods. In the first, qualitative study 127 indigenous characteristics of Indonesian leadership were identified from interviews and focus group discussions with Indonesian managers and staff. In the second study, a questionnaire based on the characteristics found in the first study was administered to Indonesian managers to identify Indonesian leadership styles. Using factor analysis, two highly correlated dimensions were extracted, labelled benevolent paternalism and transformational leadership. In the third study, a questionnaire consisting of leadership characteristics from the GLOBE study, supplemented with a selection of 49 items from the Indonesian questionnaire, was administered to another sample of Indonesian managers. We found that Indonesian leadership has two components; the first involves a more local modernization dimension that ranges from (traditional) benevolent paternalism to (modern) transformational leadership, the second is a more universal person- versus team-oriented leadership dimension. We conclude that Indonesian leadership has both emic and etic aspects.