Houdingsverandering na geprogrammeerde onderrig soos bepaal deur 'n houdingskaal : 'n empiriese studie
Kruger, Jan Hendrik
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It has been accepted thus far that programmed instruction is particularly suitable for the transfer of ready knowledge, as an aid to memorisation and for perceptional enrichment. On the whole, consideration has not been given to the possibility that the attitude of the student may be affected as welI. The main purpose of the present study is therefore, to determine to what extent the independent study of a specific programme affects attitude change, if any, in a group of respondents. Use has been made of a learning programme which had been composed by the same investigator for another field of study, and the object was to draw up an attitude scale having in view the measurement of the attitudes of respondents both before and after the studying of the programme. To present the proposed study 1n its correct perspective, an exposition of certain tendencies in the modern school is firstly sketched; among others that the aims that education strives after are clearly delineated, and that gradually better measuring and evaluating methods are developed to ascertain to what extent the set aims have been realised. Of these methods the construction of an attitude scale is but one of many. Furthermore, the development of attitude measurement, especially during the past few decades, is sketched and allied to this an overview is given of some of the most important techniques for the construction of attitude scales. The Likert Method is employed for the construction of the scale because it is a simple method which lends itself to the construction of reliable and valid attitude scales, even by somewhat inexperienced researchers in this field. The attitude scale has twice been revised after it had been placed each time for answering before a representative group of respondents. In order to eliminate items which hardly discriminate between good and weak performers, a discrimination index was applied. After the second revision of the scale it was finally decided to use the scale in its present form for the purposes of the research in question, A thousand respondents selected at random from Afrikaans medium schools in Transvaal were used in the experimental application of the scale, the learning programme and criterion test. The respondents were also allowed to give their opinions in a questionnaire about the experiment. There is evidence, based on the grounds of the numerical results of the various tests, that a certain degree of attitude change has set in. This finding is strengthened by the fact that a major section of the respondents confirmed in writing that the studying of the programme brought about a change in attitude as regards the safety aspects in the implementation of electricity. The general ruling of this research is that a learning programme such as the one used for the experiment can lead to an attitude change with similar pupils.
- Education