Beroepsverwagtinge van 'n groep Afrikaanssprekende st. 10 meisies
Havenga, Nicolaas Hendrik
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This study had a dual objective. The first was to determine which factors influenced the career choice of girls and the second whether• their• actual choices coincided with their aptitudes. Socialization has a direct influence on the identification of girls with their careers. From an early age their behaviour is in line with the traditional roles (femininity, attractiveness, etc.) which society holds up to them. This is also true about occupations regarded as being suitable for girls. Girls therefore tend to choose their careers from a limited sphere. The style of parents' upbringing of their children also has an influence on the development of a girl's sex role identity, and therefore her career orientation. The peer group, especially male friends, has a tremendous influence during adolescence on the formation of a girl's sex role identity and career orientation. Pressure from the peer group tends to make girls feel that popularity and attractiveness are more important than academic achievement and high professional aspirations. It also appears that teachers do not play a significant role in the career orientation of girls. The influence of television on the career orientation of girls can be traced back to the influence on the patterns of interest of television viewers. It emerges that television programmes represent sex roles in a stereotyped manner. Through that, patterns of interest in the fields of "Social work" and "Practical-female" (19-Field Interest Questionnaire) are reinforced. School counsellors do not have a big influence on the career choices of girls. Boys and girls both regard the aspects of interest highly in making a choice of career. Girls tend, however, to give high credence to the rendering of service and to welfare. Boys tend to look more strongly at good income and good opportunities for promotion. The training of girls is directed more at the development of aptitudes in a field in the Humanities, in secretarial and clerking positions. The result of this is that girls mostly follow a domestic, caring and administrative course of study. The career values of girls and their self-image have a negative influence on their career orientation. This leads to the situation that fear of success inhibits them from developing their full professional potential. Other factors, such as manpower shortages, economic and political conditions, the improvement of the level of education and professional knowledge separately or in conjunction, have an influence on girls' career preferences and expectations. For the purposes of this study the Senior Aptitude Test, professional profiles identified with the aid of the Senior Aptitude Test and a questionnaire were used. Three aspects are covered by the questionnaire: * Field of study * Career expectations * Choice of career All the Afrikaans-speaking matriculants of four Afrikaans-medium high schools in a particular metropolitan area participated in the project. The data were statistically processed with an SAS computer programme. Fields of study and aptitudes of the study group do not correlate. Most respondents' strongest aptitudes are in the Humanities, while they are in fact following courses in the field of Economics. Most respondents are of the opinion that there are adequate work opportunities for white girls in the RSA, but feel that career counselling did not make adequate provision for girls. The study group are of the opinion that girls can do traditionally male jobs. There is a fair amount of uncertainty, however, about the professional future of white girls in a changing RSA. Professional training is thus regarded as being very important. More than half of the group (67,2%) expert to marry and still to have a career. Most of the respondents (176 out of 277) have made a fin3l career choice. The reason why the rest have not made career choices could largely be attributed to too little knowledge about careers. Five careers, viz. secretarial, teaching, nursing, social work and clerking, represent the largest percentage (35,4%) of the study group's career choices. The study group mainly made their choices on their own volition, and most parents are satisfied with their daughters' choices of career. Training is essential for most careers, mainly at universities and technikons. Too little knowledge of careers and financial considerations gave rise to the fact that some respondents (71 out of 277) planned to study later. In the consideration of the results of the investigation, the following conclusions could be reached: The process of socialization still holds up the caring role, service and femininity to girls as the ideal. In that way girls' aptitudes in the fields of the Humanities and in medicine are reinforced. In spite of that, the greatest percentage of girls followed a commercial course. The conclusion that is reached is that they feel "safe" in this field of study, because the traditional expectation is that they will go and work as a typist or a secretary. Girls therefore choose a field of study in Standard seven which is not in line with their aptitudes. It emerges that girls do not receive adequate counselling in Standard seven, and that being a secretary or a teacher is still held up to them by die Guidance teacher. The career choices of the study group therefore correlate with their fields of study, but not with their aptitudes. The conclusion that can be reached is that a large percentage of the study group would seem to have made an unrealistic choice of career, probably because they did this from a limited professional awareness. This can probably be ascribed to the traditional values and roles held for girls. Other conclusions which emerge from this study: * The respondents are not properly informed about the changes occurring in the RSA. * The study group dispose of too little information about professional training, although they seem to be aware of its importance. * Girls want to move away from the traditional sex role of wife and mother, and want to reconcile career and marriage. * Most respondents do not dispose of adequate self- knowledge to come to a realistic choice of career without some supportive action. * The female work force in South Africa is very valuable and an important source of executive and highly qualified manpower which should not be neglected. The place which women fill in the career world and its implications should enjoy special attention in school guidance. It is especially necessary that girls be made aware of their career potential but also of career options and problems. A school guidance teacher should take note of the fact that girls' career orientation is different from that of boys, and should adjust the counselling programme accordingly. One cannot, therefore, have the same programme for boys and girls. If it should be accepted that the role of woman in the business world is important, it is essential that career and course guidance in school be improved on an ongoing basis. Such improvement can only take place if the process of career counselling makes provision for the dynamic as well as the scientific dimensions of career choice and career development of girls in particular. The career orientation of girls is a lifelong process. It goes much further than mere career counselling. It is comprehensive, encompassing the girl in her totality. It also points to co-ordinated planning by all persons and institutions involved. It is only in this way that the optimal utilization of available manpower in its full implications can be attained.
- Education