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'n Ondersoek na oor– en onderprestering by hoërskoolleerlinge met spesiale verwysing na motiverings– en persoonlikheidsaspekte
Roux, Nicolaas Everhardus
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This investigation explored differences between academically underachieving and overachieving pupils in relation to motivation and personality in a Transvaal secondary school. The hypothetical concept was that underachievers and overachievers would differ greatly and significantly with regard to personality and motivational traits. From a population of 565 pupils three experimental groups were compiled, viz: a control group, a group of underachievers and a group of overachievers, each consisting of thirty subjects. As criterion for the academic achievement of the subjects, their academic achievement in school for 1975 was used and the experimental groups were compiled in such a way, that the underachievers and overachievers reflect the greatest discrepancy between academic achievement and IQ. The relationship between the verbal and non-verbal average score of each experimental group for the IQ Test, was investigated. This did not differ significantly. The relationship between IQ and academic achievement was also investigated. In the case of the underachievers and over- achievers significant differences in relation to I IQ and academic achievement were found. Personality and motivation were measured by two tests: the HSPQ and the Pauli Test. Statistical methods used were the t-Test and the Chi-square Test. The latter were used for the significance of differences between underachievers and overachievers with regard to motivation and personality. In main the results of this investigation did not underline the findings of most other investigators. For all three experimental groups the personality traits disclosed by the HSPQ were basically the same. However, the underachievers and overachievers did differ significantly with regard to intelligence and Factor I "Sensitivity" (5% level of significance). The overachievers tend to be more sensitive than the underachievers. Most investigators report a positive relationship between introversion - extroversion and overachievement and underachievement. This was not found in this investigation. The same can be started with regard to self-concept and creativity. The Pauli Test did not produce results which differentiate significantly between underachievers and overachievers. However, certain conclusions could made: it seems as if overachievers (in this investigation) were better motivated than underachievers. The findings of the HSPQ and Pauli Tests were used for a cumulative profile in which the main personality differences between underachievers and overachievers were underlined.
- Education