|dc.description.abstract||The primary aim of the research undertaken for this
thesis was to determine the nature of and the relationship between culture and the prevailing teaching
system with particular reference to the education
system in the R.S.A.
Countries with heterogeneous populations have problems in teaching. Tension between pupils and
teachers arises when we have a merging of children
from different cultural groups in the same classroom.
Minority groups experience a feeling of discrimination against them when their languages and cultures
do not receive the same amount of attention as that
of the majority groups. Consequently we have the
question of deciding what course to follow to ensure
a balance between the two extremes of cultural integration on the one hand and cultural isolation on the other.
In order to launch and direct the research the following hypothesis was put forward, viz. that cultural
differentiation is the only way to bring about a fair
balance between the two extremes of cultural isolation and cultural integration in the teaching system.
Additional suppositions, in the form of sub-hypotheses according to which the research was conducted,
have been noted. These suppositions were tested
in the course of the research. The results of these
tests were used as norms to evaluate the HSRC report
on the implementation of cultural differential ton in
the education system.
The methods employed in this research have been duly
A study or the available literature supplied most of
the research material used. The knowledge and the
insights obtained from the literature studied led to
the planning of the research project and to the
eventual conclusions drawn. Works of a theological
and philosophical nature were used. The publications of anthropologists and folklorists were consulted. Educational books, articles, dissertations
and theses comprised an important part of the literature studied. Use was made of books on sociology
and a wide range of magazine and newspaper articles.
To give this study authentic value only primary
sources, where possible, were used.
An analysis had to be made of certain manifestations
of primary importance to this research. The Christian principle that God created different cultural
and language groups and that there is variety in and
differentiation between cultural groups, as found
in the scriptures as the revealed Word of God, is
maintained throughout. Note has been taken of
divergent philosophical trends.
From the beginning of this study frequent consultations were held with authorities other than the promoters. Insights and explanations obtained in this
way proved invaluable.
The various facets of reality and certain problems
pertaining to the research were profoundly considered
before normative judgments and approaches were adopted.
This research has been undertaken in the field of
Comparative Pedagogics. It has examined culture and
the role of culture in educational systems. It was
thus necessary to examine culture as a human activity
and to do this normatively founded points of view
(anthropology) were essential. A Scriptural view of
Man is given so that a true image can be given of
the manner in which human culture is embodied in the
The wide spectrum which had to be covered made it
necessary to consult fundamental and temporal pedagogics. This proved useful and revealed additional
perspectives. Philosophy; anthropology, theology,
folklore and sociology produced insights essential to
Not all the problems concerning the relationship between culture and the educational system have been
solved by this research. Indeed, new research projects have emerged.
Some American educational approaches pertaining to
culture and a view of Man, namely Perrenialism,
Progressivism, Essentialism and Reconstructionism
The most important criticism of the American views
mentioned is that they are founded on and directed
toward Man and are without the possibility of deepening under the guidance of the Word of God as focal
point for all branches of thought, judgments, norms
and laws applicable to them. Consequently a balance
between cultural isolation and cultural integration,
as found in these forms of humanistic thought, cannot
be brought in practice.
A radical, Scripturally founded view of Man, has the
premise that all people are the creatures of God and
therefore of equal value, but also acknowledges that
each human is unique and therefore dissimilar to any
other person. In the light of the results of this
research the Christian educationist must acknowledge, in education, the equality as well as the non-uniformity
of people. By implication it means that the
cultural products of different cultural communities
will be of equal value, but with evident underlying
differences because of the peculiar nature of each
cultural group. The various teaching systems must
keep such differences in mind. The Scriptural anthropological
principle of the equality and non-uniformity
of Man must be realized optimally in culturally differentiated teaching, that is to say, a
Scripturally based view of Man can ensure a balance
between cultural isolation and cultural integration
in the education system.
According to the Bible culture began when the first
man was given his cultural command, viz. to guard
and care for nature as given to Man by God (Gen. 2:
15). Culture is thus the concern of Man with
nature in obedience to God's command. The Christian
believes that all cultural activities must be to the
greater glory of God. The Christian attaches great
importance to the transfer of his cultural treasures
to his children by teachers and educationists.
Culture is bound to the nation concerned and dependent on the Welthanschauung of a concerned group of
people. This fact must be kept in mind in teaching
because cultural isolation can result in cultural
impoverisation and cultural integration can make
people aliens to their national cultural possessions.
The balance between cultural isolation and cultural
integration, that is a condition in which cultural
enrichment on the one hand and cultural advancement
on the other will take place; can be brought about by
a belief in and the upholding of the Scriptural view
of culture and its functions. This ideal condition
is achieved by a balanced cultural differentiation
Cultural isolation does not stimulate the development
of the educational system. Cultural integration on
the other hand distorts the relationship between
culture and the education system and results in tension arising in education, as for example, in the
U.S.A. where cultural integration was deliberately
instituted in schools. The basis for cultural integration is a holistic philosophy which endeavours
to remove all national borders and to establish a
homogeneous world community, simultaneously replacing
the national cultural heritage with a common world
culture. Such a point of view opposes the Scriptures which acknowledge different and differing
nations and cultural groups.
The study of a variety of connections between a culture and a teaching system has proved the supposition that there is an intimate relationship between
culture and education. The Scriptural point of view
of the relationship between culture and the teaching
system implicitly suggests the acceptance of cultural
differentiation in teaching as a basic premise,
simultaneously acknowledging the equality and the
non-uniformity of cultural groups. It wants to give
shape to this premise in teaching in the following
expressions: "balance between cultural isolation and
This research has found that because there has been
no exchange of knowledge and skills between cultural
groups, the cultural isolation of developing nations,
for example the Blacks in Southern Africa, often
leads to cultural stagnation in teaching and society.
On the other hand cultural integration not only
fails to satisfy because it usually retards educational development, but also, because of Man's sinful nature adversely effects the peculiar cultural
When salvation in Christ, in accordance with the
Word of God, has been found, differences between
people and cultural groups are mutually accepted and
the equality of these groups acknowledged; consequently the independence and autonomy of each particular group, also in bringing up and teaching, are
Scripturally based education in the R.S.A. has up to
now resulted in teaching developing spontaneously
into the present system with its four sub-systems.
This has been possible because the dissimilarity of
cultural groups has always been acknowledged and no
cultural isolation or integration has been enforced,
indeed, legislation at the forming of the Union of
South Africa in 1910 maintained the status quo.
The researcher's conclusion concerning the
HSRC report is, in brief, that it is a report of
consensus resulting in a variety of contradictions
and ambiguities. The ambiguities cannot be the result of ignorance. They are deliberately ambiguous
to allow for many interpretations and to eventually
satisfy all race groups. The result of the vagueness is that neither the supporters nor the opponents
of cultural differentiation will be satisfied.
The HSRC report in no way satisfies the Christian
educationist, especially because the Scriptural View
of Man, culture and the relationship between culture
and the education system is not reflected.
This aberration exists because various conflicting
religious fundamentals and philosophies of life cannot be reconciled and the members of the commission
have had to adopt a religiously neutral stance.
The vague and ambiguous manner in which cultural
differentiation was dealt with in the HSRC report,
in an attempt to satisfy all cultural groups,
negates the evident principal guidelines of cultural
differentiation for the provision of education in
Teaching and education fundamentally involve both the
transfer of culture and the determination of culture,
and cultural differentiation ought to effect a
balance between cultural isolation and cultural integration in the teaching system. This is so because
the Christian teacher must reject the modus
operandi of the IISRC report concerning cultural
Culture and the role it plays in the lives of individuals, nations and teaching systems is a reality
which cannot be underestimated or denied. Minority
groups continually agitate for acknowledgement and
equal consideration. The struggle for acknowledgement usually first becomes evident in education because it is here that minority groups wish to and
can maintain their identities.
Seen from a historical point of view the Christian
religion has always been the most dynamic stimulus
behind the Christian Afrikaner's educative teaching.
A prerequisite for effective educative teaching is
that children must experience security in a particular, peaceful cultural milieu so that teaching can
take place without tension and so that order and
discipline can be inherently maintained. This condition must be made possible so that children can be
led to Christian cultural maturity in agreement with
Christian norms and values.
Maintaining a healthy balance in teaching is only
possible when it, teaching, is based on a Christian
point of view that reconciles the extremes of cultural isolation and cultural integration in the education
system. For the purposes of the Christian Afrikaner
the HSRC report will have to be revised according to
unambiguous Scripturally religious premises which
will indicate the guidelines for cultural differentiation in order to bring about a balance in the
teaching system in the R.S.A.
Apart from certain conjectures having been proved by
this research further important affirmations as
regards the role of culture in teaching have become
apparent. These affirmations are: • Children from different cultural milieus are different and identical treatment within the framework of one certain culture engenders discrimination. The group whose language and culture are not maintained cannot receive full benefit from the teaching they are given. • Cultural integration causes tension between the cultural groups. A peaceful homogeneous milieu must be experienced by children should educative teaching be fully utilized. • During the past few decades cultural identity has been acknowledged and experienced as an incisive political, ideological and social force. It has become a reality which cannot be ignored. • A sense of security in a homogeneous, peaceful milieu is essential if educative teaching is to take place optimally and with maximum effect. The sense of security is lost when differing cultural groups are mixed in the school and the classroom. • The merging of cultural groups in one and the same school and classroom creates disciplinary problems arising from friction between teacher and pupil on the one hand and the children amongst themselves on the other. • Integration is time consuming and lowers the standard of teaching because the teacher is compelled to repeat the lesson in the other language(s) involved. Other repetitions also take place. Allowances have to made for the sake of the diverse groups. • Experience in countries like the U.S.A., England and Israel has indicated that the integration of the different cultural groups does not remove the underlying tension between the groups, indeed, it has been found to escalate. • It is impossible to expect equity in one classroom for all pupils from differing cultural milieus. • The principle of civilization in the historical continuity of teaching and the role of culture must be kept in mind in any changes being made to the education system. This research has come to the conclusion that teaching is the transfer of culture. Everyone involved in the teaching of children must be au fait
with the role of culture in education and teaching.
In a country with a multi-cultural population cognizance must, in the planning of educational logistics, be taken of the culture peculiar to each cultural