Determinants of educational systems of Bophuthatswana and Botswana
Malao, Jacob Herman Kgosi
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In the opening chapter the following matters are looked into: * PROBLEM OF RESEARCH The problem of research is: - to determine whether the influences of the Republic of South Africa on the Bophuthatswana system of education and that of England on Botswana are responsible for differences of the educational systems of Bophuthatswana and Botswana; - to determine whether there are other determinants of the systems in question; and - a comparison of the determinants of the educational systems in question. * AIMS OF RESEARCH The purpose of this study is: - to make an intensive study of the educational systems of Bophuthatswana and Botswana; - to determine and to compare determinants of the educational systems in question. * METHODS OF RESEARCH The following methods have been used: literature study, interviews, interpretation of data, evaluation of data, scientific writing and the comparative method of George Bereday. * DEMARCATION OF THE FIELD OF STUDY This study is confined to the important determinants of the educational systems of Bophuthatswana and Botswana. In the second chapter methodology of Comparative Education and the theoretical structure of the educational system have been discussed. The method of George Bereday was chosen for the purpose of comparing the determinants of the systems of education in question. Bereday's method has been chosen on the grounds of the following: this method provides a more logical form of comparison - with this method Bereday has been able to give more weight to the contribution of the social sciences - it provides a logical set of procedures Bereday's method has however not been used precisely as he uses it in his writings but adjustments have been made to suit the purpose of this study. The theoretical structure of the educational system has also been discussed in chapter 2. The four structural moments of the educational system are being looked into under the theoretical structure of the system of education. The following are those structural moments of the educational system: - The religious structural moment: The religious ground motif of the community is fundamental in national systems of education. All systems of education which function normatively are based on the religious ground motif. The religious ground motif further determines the educational motif of the community. - The temporal - structural moment: Here the central idea is that the educational system is amongst others determined by temporality and that it is inseparably tied to time. - The modal - structural moment: The 15 modalities in accordance with Dooyeweerd's approach have implications for the structure and content of the educational system. - The individual structural moment of the educational system: Like everything in the cosmos the educational system has its identity as the system of education. All aspects of the educational system have been discussed in this chapter. The exposition of the educational system of Bophuthatswana is given in chapter 3. The major aim of discussing this educational system was to provide indications to its determinants. Before coming to the exposition of the educational system of Bophuthatswana per se the following issues which facilitate the understanding of an educational system were discussed: Geographical location of Bophuthatswana, climate, natural resources, the peoples of Bophuthatswana, and the culture of the Tswanas. The culture of the Tswana has further been broken down to smaller items such as: the life-patterns of the Tswanas, language and literature, the system of Government, economy and the importance of culture in education. The historical development of the educational system of Bophuthatswana has also been traced with the aim of ensuring the roots of this educational system. In the course of the discussion of the historical development it become clear that this system of education developed from the missionary education through the South African educational system. It has therefore become clear that the South African system of education has a very strong determining influence on the Bophuthatswana educational system. The exposition of the Bophuthatswana system of education is divided into the following aspects: * LEGISLATION Under legislation the Bophuthatswana National Education Act (Act 2 of 1979) has been discussed and the following major elements of the Act have been highlighted: ** GENERAL INTENT OF THE ACT The general intent of this Act is to serve the people of Bophuthatswana educationally without regard to race, colour, class or creed. ** DEFINITIONS Article 2 of the Act in question gives a definition of all the important concepts used in the Act. ** CO-ORDINATION, CONTROL, ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION OF EDUCATIONAL SERVICES. Amongst others it is stated in the Act art. 3 that in providing educational services the Department of Education shall work in close cooperation with other state departments. ** ESTABLISHMENT OF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Article 5(1) gives the Minister of Education powers to establish various categories of educational institutions. ** GENERAL REGULATIONS Article 10 gives matters in respect of which the Minister of Education may by notice in a gazette make regulations. ** APPOINTMENT AND CONDITIONS OF SERVICE OF STAFF The conditions of service of the teachers are outlined in article 12 of this Act. ** DELEGATION OF POWERS BY THE MINISTER OF EDUCATION The Minister of Education may in accordance with art. 13 of this Act delegate either generally or in part in any particular case any power conferred on him by this Act. * CONTROL OF EDUCATION The exposition of the control of education reveals that education is both centralized and decentralized in Bophuthatswana. At the centralized level of control the following functionaries are involved: The Minister of Education who is a political head of the department, the secretary for Education who is the administrative head of the department, the inspectorate and several head office officials. Decentralized form of control is manifested in various councils such as the School Councils and the District Education Councils. Control of education in this country amongst others points to the political philosophy of the people, and therefore politics proves to be one of the determinants of education. * THE SCHOOL SYSTEM The school pattern of Bophuthatswana is 6 + 3 + 3. This means that the duration of primary school phase is six years, the middle school is three years and the high school is also three years. The following aspects in terms of primary school education have been looked into: provision of facilities, enrolments, examinations, curriculum, medium of instruction, projections and fundamental wastage. In addition to ordinary primary, middle and high schools there are technical schools, a technikon, Colleges of Education and the University. The middle school has been discussed in terms of the following issues: curriculum, and enrollments. As regards the high school the following matters received attention: curriculum, enrollments and projections. In the exposition of the Ancillary Services the following matters received attention: Curriculum and Examination Services, Language Services, Cultural Affairs Division, Sports and Recreation, National Library and Bureau for Psychological Services. Supplementary Services have been discussed in terms of extramural activities and pupils accommodation. In chapter 4 the system of education of Botswana is being exposed. Before coming to the exposition of the actual system of the Botswana education it was necessary to look into the following matters: * THE GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION The description of the geographical position of Botswana reveals that this country is situated in the heart of Southern Africa. * CLIMATE The climatic conditions and their associated natural vegetation vary from dry to sub-tropical. * THE PEOPLES OF BOTSWANA The people of Botswana are divided into eight major tribes namely, Bangwato, BakgatZa, Bakwena, Bangwaketse, Batawana, BamaZete, BatZokwa and BaroZong. There are also some smaller groups which make up 20 percent of the total population. * CULTURE The following items in terms of culture have been looked into the life patterns of the rural Tswanas, political system, economy, currency and language and literature. * THE HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF EDUCATION IN BOTSWANA The history of the Botswana education ;s virtually a story of the activities of various missionaries. The London Missionary Society started the first schools in Botswana under the guidance of men such as Moffat, Livingstone and McKenzie. In view of the fact the Botswana was a British Protectorate it stands to reason that England had tremendous influence on education in that country. Up to 19~4 there was no secondary school education in Botswana and most of the education was provided in the Republic of South Africa. The historical development of the Botswana education still has a determining influence on the provision of education in that country because the backlog that has been inherited by the present government from the colonial government is legion and therefore takes money which could be financing new projects. The discussion of the educational system of Botswana is divided into the following: * EDUCATIONAL LEGISLATION Under legislation the Botswana Education Act (Act 40 of 1966) has been discussed in terms of its major parts. Those parts are: ** PART I : PRELIMINARY In the preliminary phase the basic concepts used in the Act are been defined. ** PART II ADMINISTRATION In this phase the functions of senior functionaries in education such as the Minister of Education and the permanent Secretary for Education are inter alia spelled out. ** PART III : REGISTRATION AND CONTROL OF SCHOOLS This phase is primarily devoted to the registration of all the schools in the Ministry of Education. Education. ** PART IV : SUPPLEMENTARY In this phase a person aggrieved by the Permanent Secretary of Education by refusing to register his school is given right to appeal to the Minister of Education. The Minister of Education is also given right in this phase to publish notices in the Gazette. * CONTROL OF EDUCATION Both central and local control of education have been discussed. At the centralized level the duties of the Minister of Education and the Permanent Secretary have been looked into. As regards local control of education the light has been thrown on the following bodies: Local Education Authority, Board of Governors and the School Committee. * THE SCHOOL SYSTEM The school pattern of Botswana is 7 + 3 + 2(3). This means that the duration of primary school education is 7 years, junior secondary education 3 years and high school education 2 or 3 years. It becomes 2 years when the candidate does ordinary matric and 3 years when the candidate takes advance level matric. Primary school education has been discussed in terms of the following things: Provision of education facilities, examinations, medium of instruction and wastage. As far as secondary school education is concerned the following issues were looked into: types of secondary schools, pattern of schools and aim of secondary school education. In addition to ordinary primary. secondary and high schools the following institutions were looked into: special schools, technical and vocational, teacher training and the university. The exposition of Ancillary Services reveals that the following services have been included in the educational system of Botswana: Curriculum Development and Evaluation, which further has the following branches or units: Curriculum Development Unit, Research and Testing Unit, Examination Unit, School Broadcasting Unit, Teaching Aid Production Unit and Teacher's Centres. Supplementary Services have been discussed in terms of pupil accommodation and extra-mural activities. All the aspects of the educational system have been discussed to provide indicators to their determinants. Chapter 5 deals with the juxtaposing and subsequent comparison of the determinants of the educational systems of Bophuthatswana and Botswana. The determinants of the educational systems in question are grouped under two main groups viz. internal and external. The determinants of the two systems under review are juxtaposed and compared in the following manner: * NATIONAL IDEALS ** THE IDEAL OF POPAGANO (Bophuthatswana) *** Education for popagano embraces the following four elements: ***For the individual, popagano is concerned with the creation of new self-reliance and confidence. ***In social and economic life popagano means building up, progress and development. ***The creation and building of a new nation. ***Popagano is an expression of the democratic ideal, the bringing together in co-operation and interdependence of all the people of Bophuthatswana. The ideal of popagano forms the aim of education in Bophuthatswana. ** THE IDEAL OF KAGISANO(Botswana) The four political principles of the Botswana Democratic Party namely, democracy, development, self-reliance and unity culminate in an ideal of Kagisano. Two other dimentions of Kagisano are the idea of social justice and the sense of community and mutual responsibility. Kagisano forms the basic aim of education in Botswana. In both systems of education the national ideals form the basic aim of education. * HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT The educational system of Bophuthatswana developed from the South African system of Black Education. The Botswana system of education on the other hand developed from the British system of education. The differences between the ways in which the determinant under review affects education in the systems in question is that in Bophuthatswana historical development of education shows continuity and support from the South African system of education whereas in Botswana it reveals neglect on the part of England. * POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY The political philosophy of the people of Bophuthatswana namely democracy has influenced the educational system planning in that democracy is amongst others implied in educational control. In Botswana the political principles of democracy, development, self-reliance and unity pervade the entire system of education. The main difference between the two systems of education in question in terms of political philosophies is that in Bophuthatswana democracy is implied in education whereas in Botswana the four political principles are practically applied in education. * RELIGION The Bophuthatswana National Education Act (Act 2 of 1979) amongst others stipulates the conditions under which Religious Education will be taught in schools. Religious Education is a compulsory school subject in Bophuthatswana. The Botswana Education Act of 1966 (Act 40 of 1966) also states the conditions under which Religious Education will be taught in schools. Unlike in Bophuthatswana Religious Education is not a compulsory school subject in Botswana. * LANGUAGES AS DETERMINANTS OF EDUCATION In Bophuthatswana there are three languages which determine the educational system viz, Setswana, English and Afrikaans. In Botswana two languages determine the system of education namely. Setswana and English. In both systems of education in question the national languages have not been accorded their rightful places because they terminate early as media of instruction. * THE TRADITIONAL PATTERNS OF SETTLEMENT The traditional patterns of settlement affect education only in Botswana. Traditional settlement in Botswana refers to the fact that rural people in Botswana have three homes viz, in the village, on the land and at the cattle post. The Ministry of Education makes an attempt to provide education at all these settlement places. * THE SPIRIT OF LOCALIZATION In Bophuthatswana the spirit of localization has not yet been effective as a determinant of education. In many fields of occupation expatriate specialists are given the nationals as assistants. The national assistants should understudy the expatriates so that they may replace them in the course of time. The nationals should therefore receive proper education so that they can meaningfully replace the expatriates. * THE NEEDS OF A COUNTRY The technical needs of Bophuthatswana and Botswana have necessitated technical education in those countries. * THE ECONOMY AS A DETERMINANT OF EDUCATION Both the Bophuthatswana and the Botswana systems of education are amongst others determined by the economy. The Bophuthatswana system of education does not have very serious economic problems whereas the provisions of education in Botswana shows serious economic problems. * THE CHILD AS A DETERMINANT OF EDUCATION Both systems of education under review are paedocentric. * TEACHERS AS A DETERMINANT OF EDUCATION In Bophuthatswana the appointment of teachers is legalised by article 11(2) of the Education Act (Act 2 of 1979). The Botswana teachers are appointed by Unified Teaching Service Act of 1975. The duration of primary teacher training in Botswana is two years after Junior Certificate whereas in Bophuthatswana is three years after Senior Certificate. * TRENDS IN PRIMARY SCHOOL EDUCATION Improvements in primary school education in Bophuthatswana and Botswana results in expansion of secondary school education. The differences between the Bophuthatswana and the Botswana system of education in terms of education in terms of trends in primary school education ;s that automatic promotion in primary schools in Botswana create a further problem for the secondary school education planner. In Bophuthatswana promotions are not automatic. * NUMBER AS A DETERMINANT OF EDUCATION In both systems numbers or statistics play an important role. Projections of enrollments are for instance expressed in figures. Botswana has more serious problems than Bophuthatswana in terms of enrollments in secondary schools. * SPATIAL DETERMINANT The fact that Bophuthatswana consists of fragmented pieces of land with no definite boundaries makes administration of education difficult. Distance between school and home is another factor that determines education in Botswana for example in the Ghanzi district only 55 percent of the populace live within eight kilometers from a primary school. * MOVEMENT AS A DETERMINANT OF EDUCATION In both systems of education in question movement determine education because syllabi are uniform to ensure that children transferring from one school to the other do not suffer. In Botswana there is great movement towards towns, more schools must therefore be provided in town areas. * THE PSYCHIC DETERMINANT In Bophuthatswana and Botswana systems of education there are special schools for the mentally retarded children. The psychic aspect of man therefore determines education in both systems of education. * THE ANALYTICAL ASPECT OF MAN Both systems of education under review are analytically determined. The school pattern of Bophuthatswana, which is a reflection of analytical aspect is 6 + 3 + 3 and that of Botswana is 7 + 3 + 2(3). More similarities and differences of between these systems of education in terms of the analytical aspects are given in this chapter. * THE ETHICAL DETERMINANT The ethical standards in the educational system of Bophuthatswana are engendered by articles 12(4 - 5) and 10(19) of the National Education Act of 1979. In Botswana the pupils of every school are controlled by regulations formulated by individual schools. The difference between the two systems of education in terms of the ethical determinant is that in Botswana teachers are being controlled by Unified Teaching Services whereas in Bophuthatswana the conditions of service of teachers are embodied in the Bophuthatswana Education Act (Act 2 of 1979) article 12. * THE JUDICIAL DETERMINANT The Bophuthatswana National Education Act of 1979 creates the field of education in Bophuthatswana. In Botswana the field of Education is being created by the Botswana Education Act of 1966 (Act 40 of 1966). Both systems of education are therefore determined by judiciary acts. * WESTERN CULTURE Both systems of education are determined by Western culture. * THE INFLUENCE OF THE REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA In Bophuthatswana the influence of the Republic of South Africa is positive because it shows support and continuity whereas in Botswana is negative because it has resulted in the stoppage in the supply of teachers. * THE INFLUENCE OF ENGLAND The influence of England on Bophuthatswana is indirect whereas is direct on Botswana. Cambridge Matric is popular in Botswana for instance. In chapter 6 all issues raised in all other chapters are summerised and recommendations are also made.
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