Lesevaluering in die praktiese opleiding van onderwysstudente vir die primêre skool
Vos, Jacobus Andries Petrus
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At modern training institutes the practical-professional training of student teachers does not only take place in the classroom situation at schools, but also in practical sessions conducted at the training institute and in practical sessions during which he is guided by the lecturer (or teacher-tutor). By means of Competency Based Teacher Education (CBTE) the prospective teacher is systematically guided until he has mastered the predetermined teaching skills which cover a wide range of affective, cognitive and psycho-motoric skills; as well as particular techniques. Particularly positive results with observation instruments have been achieved in practical sessions conducted at training institutes to train student teachers in the "art of teaching". This is especially due to research done by various researchers in the field of micro-teaching and interaction analysis during the past decade. A study of the available literature in this field has revealed that there exists a certain need for scientifically grounded observation instruments by means of which the teaching competencies of student teachers as revealed during the actual teaching of lessons can be evaluated by lecturers, also in practical teaching sessions at schools. It is this need which motivated the researcher to obtain scientific information concerning the evaluation of lesson presentations. It was undertaken with the intention of developing a lesson observation instrument with which the student teacher's presentation of a lesson can be evaluated, as objectively as possible, during the practical teaching sessions at schools. This instrument would also be used to train the student teacher as far as lesson presentation is concerned. The theme of this research formed part of a combined research project undertaken by the HSRC and the University of Potchefstroom entitled: 'The Improvement of teachers' training in the RSA by means of Competency Based Teacher Education (CBTE)'. It was done in three phases, namely: a study of the available literature, an empirical research and the designing and testing of a lesson observation instrument by means of exploratory research. In the study of available literature attention was given to five basic principles which can be applied to lesson evaluation. Furthermore, the role of a competency based training programme was examined to make the functioning of these principles of evaluation possible. Moreover, the competencies which an effective teacher should dispose of, were carefully scrutinized. With reference to the aims for the evaluation of teaching competencies and the extent to which these competencies can be evaluated, teaching competencies were categorized into three main sections, namely cognitive, performance and affective competencies. Examples of such competencies which can be evaluated both within and without the lesson situation, can be categorized according to three goal concepts: 'cognizance', 'ability' and ''being'('know', 'can' and 'be') concepts. A distinction was also made between teaching competencies which can be practised during practical sessions at the training institute and practical teaching sessions at schools. After a study of the available literature, the author of this dissertation came to the conclusion that the effectivity of a structured evaluation form for evaluation and training can be improved provided that it is designed in such a way that it is scientifically justified. To develop such an instrument, it was necessary to gather certain scientific data. This was realised by undertaking an empirical research project. Members of staff at several white colleges of education in the RSA were involved in the empirical research project. The structured questionnaire consisted of five sections. Apart from personal particulars, the questions were based on: • criteria according to which teaching competencies could be evaluated; • ways in which criteria could be structured in conjunction with grading scales in evaluation forms; • ways in which the allocation of marks and/or grading could be conducted; • aspects of organizational/administrative nature, as well as other aspects which could influence the way in which evaluation instruments are implemented. The results of the empirical research provided the information which was necessary to design a lesson evaluation and training instrument. The instrument was further developed and refined by experimentation during three consecutive practical teaching periods of three weeks each. The testing and refinement of the instrument during three exploratory investigations consequently led to the development of special lesson observation instruments for individual practical subjects. The author came to the conclusion that the exploratory investigations to test and improve the lesson evaluation instruments contributed to the fact that the instruments largely satisfied the requirements of validity and reliability, also as far as commensurability, the possibility of self-evaluation and adaptability are concerned. Trainers of teachers who evaluate student lessons, employing the evaluation instruments which were developed during the research project, should, however, keep in mind that the utilisation value of a lesson evaluation instrument does not lie in the instrument only but also in the person who applies it or uses it. It is hoped that the research project which resulted in the above mentioned findings will be of some value in the training of teachers; especially for lecturers at teachers' training institutes who are interested in scientific information in connection with lesson evaluation, as well as instruments with which students' lesson presentations can be evaluated more objectively.
- Education