Die Progressive Education Movement (PEM) in die VSA en People's Education (PE) in die RSA : 'n fundamenteel–opvoedkundige vergelyking
De Lange, Catharina Jacoba
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This study is an attempt to draw a fundamental-educational comparison between the Progressive Education Movement (PEM) in the USA and People's education (PE) in the RSA. The connection between these two movements presumably lies in their progressive nature - therefore the purpose of this comparison is to expose the fundamental-educational resemblances between the PEM in the USA en PE in the RSA. This study is subsequently directed at the presentation of a fundamental-educational explanation for resemblances and differences found between concepts of progressiveness as propagated by the PEM in the USA and PE in the RSA. In order to gather and arrange data on the PEM in the USA and PE in the RSA, various methods such as literature study, the problem-historical method, comparative method, fundamental-reflective and descriptive method as well as the transcendental-critical method were employed. In chapter one the context, background, actuality and purpose of this research are presented, a methodological account is given, the research field is indicated and the structure of the research report is briefly outlined. Data in chapters two and three (wherein the PEM and PE, respectively, are typified and described) is essential, because the factors such as culturo-historical background, the spirit of the age and fundamental factors (such as fundamental religious motives and outlook on life) on which the relationship (presumably of a progressive nature) is based, are investigated by means of this information. Data gathered in chapters two and three is structured identically in order to clarify the purpose (the core) of the research, namely a fundamental-educational comparison between these two movements (chapter four). structuring of data in chapters two "and three (wherein the PEM and PE, respectively, are typified and described) highlights the culturo-historical background, concepts of progressiveness, philosophies and the educational-philosophical foundations of the PEM and PE as comparable thought systems. Literature study and the problem-historical method were primarily employed in arranging and adopting data for the purpose of this study. The fundamental-educational comparison in chapter four indicates the presence of more resemblances than differences in viewpoints on and handling of progressiveness by the PEM and PE. Resemblances found in viewpoints on progressiveness can presumably be explained by way of resemblances in religious apostasy freedom in nature I fundamental religious motive, the I humanistic-secular concept of life and biased emphasis on progression at the cost of tradition. The few differences in concepts of progressiveness held by the PEM and PE can presumably be explained by way of differences in their philosophical, pretheoretical and theoretical foundations. In chapter four primary use was made of the comparative method, fundamental-reflective and descriptive as well as the transcendental-critical method. In chapter five, the concluding chapter, a broad outline of the research is presented: findings, conclusions and recommendations are presented by virtue of the research. It was concluded inter alia that the PEM focuses on the inadequacies of the educational system in the USA up to the 1950's as well as on the social reconstruction that had to take place. PE on the other hand focuses on the shortcomings of the status quo and black education. It was concluded inter alia that, based on clear resemblances between their respective origins, the PEM can be regarded primarily as an embodiment of pragmatism and PE as an embodiment of Marxism. Recommendations are made inter alia that changes in education must be progressive- and simultaneously tradition-bound - then, and only then can progression be significant; bias and imbalance can be prevented and the entire process can acquire the true character of reformation in the Biblical sense. The PEM in the USA failed in this and PE in the RSA has, up to now, been unable to maintain the fine balance between tradition and progression.
- Education