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Die effek van 'n intervensieprogram op die motoriese ontwikkeling van straatkinders
Van Niekerk, Lizl-Louise
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This study had the dual purpose of determining the anthropometric and motor development status of street children as well as to establish the effect of an intervention programme on their motor development. The first aim of the study was to determine the anthropometric and motor development status of street children. The children were selected from a sample of street children living in a state-run shelter. Twenty eight children (20 boys and 8 girls) between the ages of 7 and 14 were measured to determine their anthropometric and motor development status. The anthropometric measures included stature, mass, body-mass index (BMI), and two skin folds (subscapular and triceps). The measurements were performed according to the protocol of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK). The results of the anthropometric measurements showed that the street children are shorter, lighter and have a lower BMI and smaller skin folds than the norm for children of the same age. The sample exhibited a prevalence of malnutrition. The same subjects who were tested to determine the anthropometric composition (except for four children, who had since left the shelter) were used to determine the motor development status. The gross motor, fine motor and neuromotor functions were tested to determine the motor development status. This was determined by means of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test II of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP), the Sensory Input Screening Instrument and a section of the Quick Neurological Screening Test II. The results showed that the motor (gross motor, fine motor and neuromotor) development of the street children is below the standard norms. The second aim of the study was to determine the effect of an intervention programme on the motor development of street children. The same subjects who were tested to determine the motor development status (except for four children, who had since left the shelter) were used to determine the effect of a motor intervention programme. Seventeen boys and 7 girls between the ages of 7 and 14 years were randomly selected and divided into an experimental (n=13) and a control group (n= 11). A 10-week motor intervention programme that consisted of bi-weekly sessions of 45 minutes was implemented. The affectivity of this was evaluated by a post-test. The programme consisted of perceptual motor, sensory integration and task specific activities using the integrated method. The main components, which were addressed in the lessons, were bilateral integration, response speed, hand skills, muscle tone, motor planning, equilibrium, vestibular function and vision strengthening activities. The program was presented by a qualified kinderkineticist. The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP), the Sensory Input Screening Instrument and a section of the Quick Neurological Screening Test I1 were applied to determine the effect of the intervention programme. Covariance of analysis, correcting for pre-testing differences between the groups, indicated improvement of the Bruininks-Oseretsky-Test Total as well as in fine motor skills and upper limb speed in the experimental group. Vestibular and vision functions also increased significantly in this group, which might have contributed to the improvement in fine motor development. All these improvements showed a high practical significance (ES>0.8). Based on the results of this study, it is recommended that the physical growth and motor development deficits as well as the positive effects of the intervention program, as identified in this study be brought under the attention of relevant persons in state organizations and private institutions, which are involved with street children.
- Humanities