The effects of rehabilitation on intellectually disabled people: a systematic review
Sechoaro, Ernest Joshua
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Background: Rehabilitation has emerged as a comprehensive approach with a combination of treatment modalities to address the multiple impediments associated with disabilities in intellectually disabled people. Rehabilitation is used to address intellectually disabled peoples’ skill deficits, to improve competencies and to facilitate optimal functioning within the goal of giving the greatest possible measure of social and economic participation, independence, self–reliance and self–determination to intellectually disabled people. The ongoing improvement of rehabilitation services in the public health system therefore remains a continuous challenge; hence the need for further research. Objective: The systematic literature review critically synthesizes and describes the available evidence of the effects of rehabilitation on intellectually disabled people. Method: Literature searches of different electronic databases as well as manual searches of references of primary studies were conducted using selected keywords. The total number of the studies identified from an electronic database search was 1 102. All titles and abstracts were screened for relevance and 40 studies were immediately excluded. From the remaining 1 062 studies, another 993 studies were excluded because they were not relevant to the rehabilitation of intellectually disabled people. The abstracts and titles of the remaining 69 studies were screened for a second time to exclude studies not relevant to actual rehabilitation of intellectually disabled people. Another two studies were excluded as duplicates. The remaining 67 studies were retrieved as full texts; of these, 40 studies were excluded due to them being written in a foreign language. After all abstracts and texts were thoroughly screened for true relevancy to the review question, a further 20 studies were excluded. The remaining seven full–text studies were selected for critical appraisal because they were relevant to the effects of rehabilitation on intellectually disabled people. Results: These identified studies have the potential to inform clinical practice on the basis of their evidenced interventions that resulted in the improvement of outcomes of rehabilitation of intellectually disabled people. Improvement of skills was noted for mildly and moderately intellectually disabled people. Improvement was noted in activities of daily living (ADL), self–care skills, communication skills and cognitive achievements. Conclusions: The study contributes to the comprehensive nursing care of intellectually disabled people by endorsement of the effectiveness of rehabilitation in terms of ADL, self–care skills, communication skills and cognitive achievements. The collected evidence of this study may contribute to the education of more effective nurse practitioners involved in the daily care and rehabilitation of intellectually disabled people.
- Health Sciences