Positive acculturation conditions and work related outcomes : the mediating role of integration
Russell, Abram Laurie
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Multiculturalism has emerged to challenge liberalism as an ideological solution in coping with ethnic diversity. Inter–ethnic group contact amongst individuals of different cultures is defined as acculturation. Acculturation is an experience from different cultural encounters between employees and their work environments where organisational socialization is a prerequisite to becoming accustomed to different cultural conditions. Acculturation orientation is related to well–being and involves social identification techniques of a minority group within the workplace. Acculturation thus becomes a factor on which to focus when cultural differences are experienced by employees in an organisation of differing cultural values. For purposes of this particular study, the focus will be placed on integration as a mediating role in the relation between positive acculturation conditions and work outcomes. Intergroup relations and adaptation to host culture will be measured directly as per the responses from participants. For the purpose of this study, a quantitative approach is adopted by using a five point Likert scale questionnaire adapted from the model designed by Arends–Toth and Van de Vijver (2006). Predictors in the adapted model include mainstream multiculturalism factors (norms and practices), tolerance, ethnic integration demands and ethnic vitality and outcomes of acculturation, subjective work success, work commitment and job satisfaction. The results indicated that a workplace culture that promotes ethnic cultural maintenance of people from a diverse background coupled with encouragement to participate in the mainstream by ethnic members at home and at work would contribute to the experience of higher levels of subjective work success (Jackson, van de Vijver & Ali, submitted). Multiculturalism practices and ethnic vitality have indirect and significant effects on psychological and socio cultural acculturation outcomes (job satisfaction and organisational commitment as well as subjective experience of work success), while multicultural norms only have indirect and significant effects on psychological acculturation outcomes (job satisfaction and organisational commitment).