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dc.contributor.authorNgobeni, M.D.
dc.contributor.authorPotgieter, M.S.
dc.identifier.citationNgobeni, M.D. & Potgieter, M.S. 2011. Modulation of galactic cosmic rays in a north-south asymmetrical heliosphere. Advances in space research, 48(2):300-307. []en_US
dc.identifier.issn1879-1978 (Online)
dc.description.abstractObservations made with the two Voyager spacecraft confirmed that the solar wind decelerates to form the heliospheric termination shock. Voyager 1 crossed this termination shock at ∼94 AU in 2004, while Voyager 2 crossed it in 2007 at a different heliolatitude, about 10 AU closer to the Sun. These different positions of the termination shock confirm the dynamic and cyclic nature of the shock’s position. Observations from the two Voyager spacecraft inside the heliosheath indicate significant differences between them, suggesting that apart from the dynamic nature caused by changing solar activity there also may exist a global asymmetry in the north–south (polar) dimensions of the heliosphere, in addition to the expected nose–tail asymmetry. This relates to the direction in which the heliosphere is moving in interstellar space and its orientation with respect to the interstellar magnetic field. In this paper we focus on illustrating the effects of this north–south asymmetry on modulation of galactic cosmic ray Carbon, between polar angles of 55° and 125°, using a numerical model which includes all four major modulation processes, the termination shock and the heliosheath. This asymmetry is incorporated in the model by assuming a significant dependence on heliolatitude of the thickness of the heliosheath. When comparing the computed spectra between the two polar angles, we find that at energies E < ∼1.0 GeV the effects of the assumed asymmetry on the modulated spectra are insignificant up to 60 AU from the Sun but become increasingly more significant with larger radial distances to reach a maximum inside the heliosheath. In contrast, with E > ∼1.0 GeV, these effects remain insignificant throughout the heliosphere even very close to the heliopause. Furthermore, we find that a higher local interstellar spectrum for Carbon enhances the effects of asymmetric modulation between the two polar angles at lower energies (E < ∼300 MeV). In conclusion, it is found that north–south asymmetrical effects on the modulation of cosmic ray Carbon depend strongly on the extent of the geometrical asymmetry of the heliosheath together with the assumed value of the local interstellar spectrum
dc.subjectCosmic raysen_US
dc.subjectsolar activityen_US
dc.titleModulation of galactic cosmic rays in a north-south asymmetrical heliosphereen_US
dc.contributor.researchID10060014 - Potgieter, Marthinus Steenkamp
dc.contributor.researchID13161229 - Ngobeni, Mabedle Donald

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