The changing employment relationship in the chemical industry : the role of the employment– and psychological contract
Understanding the employment relationship in the chemical industry in South Africa and organisational change within it is crucial to the understanding of the changing employment and psychological contract within this industry. This study focused on the employment- and psychological contracts, as well as employees ' work-outcomes (organisational commitment, job insecurity, job performance and intention to quit). Employees from the chemical industry were targeted and a cross-sectional survey design was used to obtain the research objectives. Descriptive statistics, factor analyses, Cronbach alpha coefficients, correlations, multiple regression analyses were used to analyse the data. In Article 1 the objectives were to investigate the reliability and validity of the measuring instruments, and to study the relationships between employment- and psychological contracts and other employment relation outcomes. The Psychological Contract Questionnaire (PCQ) and demographical questionnaire were administered. Three internally consistent factors, namely Employer Obligations, Employee Obligations and Status of the Psychological Contract were extracted. Statistically significant differences were found between employee obligations and state of psychological contract. Statistically significant relationships were also found between employee obligations and violation of psychological contract. In Article 2 the objective was to determine the relationship between employer obligations, employee obligations, and the state of psychological contract, violations of psychological contract and various demographical characteristics of employees in the chemical industry. The PSYCONES were administered. Practically significant relationships with a large effect were found between employer obligations, state of psychological contract and violation of psychological contract. Gender and age were statistically significantly related to experiences of the psychological contract. In Article 3 the aim was to assess the relationship between employer obligations, employee obligations, the state of the psychological contract, violations of the psychological contract, work-outcomes and the demographic of employees. The PSYCONES were used as measuring instruments. A practically significant relationship was found between the state of psychological contract, violation thereof (a large effect), job insecurity (a medium effect) and organisational commitment (a medium effect). Regression analyses showed that psychological contract violation predicted organisational commitment. A negative relationship was found between the violation of the psychological contract, as associated with the state of the psychological contract, and intention to quit. Theoretically, it was expected that job insecurity would have a negative impact on organisational commitment, but the results showed that a statistically and practically significant positive relationship exists between job insecurity and organisational commitment. Only the type of contract and qualifications of employees resulted in a statistically increase in the prediction of variance in job insecurity. Demographical characteristics (age, gender, tenure, supervision, qualifications, and type of contract) did not contribute to oganisational commitment.