Developing a link between ingested carbohydrate energy and cardiovascular disease
Laubscher, Jacobus Petrus
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Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) is the most widespread modern disease in the Western world. There is a substantial amount of evidence suggesting that blood glucose energy plays a role in the formation and progression of the disease. The staff at Human-Sim (Pty) Ltd have developed a concept that they believe can be used to help decrease the risk of CVD. This concept can be used to quantify blood glucose energy extracted from any foodstuff. This method of quantification of blood glucose energy has been called the Equivalent Teaspoon Sugar (ets) concept. To link the ets concept with CVD, two studies were done. In the first study risk factors obtained from cohort studies linking the HbA-ic percentage with CVD risk were used. The HbA-ic percentage is a representation of the mean blood glucose level over a certain period of time. Through simulating the effect of ets intake on blood glucose levels using the simulation model Diabetic Toolbox, it was found that an increase in ets intake results in an increase in mean blood glucose levels in diabetic patients. This increase was linked with an increase in the HbA-ic percentage and hence the link with CVD risk was made. However, the increase in mean blood glucose due to ets intake is not sufficiently significant to create an accurate link between ets intake and CVD. The second study used risk factors obtained from cohort studies linking giycaemic load intake with CVD risk. This proved to be much more effective than the first study. Since giycaemic load can be expressed through ets, a link between ets intake and CVD was made. Stress is also a well-known factor that is associated with the increase of CVD. With empirical measurements and simulations, it was found that the effect stress has on blood sugar levels can be approximated with an effect similar to that of ingested carbohydrates. The effect stress has on blood glucose energy could be linked to an increased risk of CVD. The results correlated very well with cohort studies done where stress was viewed as a risk factor of CVD. This research can lead to a new way of quantifying stress. The effect exercise has on CVD was also investigated. A decrease in CVD risk is associated with the amount of energy expended during exercise in KCal. During exercise, blood glucose energy is used. The amount of blood glucose energy used can be expressed as ets-expended during exercise, which in turn was linked to a decrease in the risk of CVD. In conclusion, a correlation does exist between blood glucose energy and CVD. The ets concept quantifies blood glucose energy and can thus be used to control blood glucose energy. Research shows that the risk of CVD can be reduced if a person controls his energy intake, manages his stress and exercises regularly. All of these above factors can be quantified with the ets concept which is an easy to understand unit of blood glucose energy. The ets concept can be used as a tool to help a person keep his blood glucose energy levels at a healthy level considering carbohydrate intake, stress and exercise and thus reduce the risk of CVD.
- Engineering