Versteuringspatrone in die Afrikaans van die Tswanasprekende
Setshedi, Cynthia Matshediso
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This study aimed at: 1. determining the causes of pattern interference: 2. determining when do the Batswana speak Afrikaans, with whom, about what and whether they manage to say what they want to say; 3. exposing the attitude of the Batswana to Afrikaans. The collection of sociological data with regard to an experimental group of Setswana native speakers was done so as to serve as a background to the linguistic data. The data was analysed on an error analysis basis which was projected on a contractive analysis of patterns in Afrikaans and Setswana. The type of pattern interferences was shown and the causes of these interferences were systematically analysed and described. Thereafter, the nature and frequency of the interferences was shown. The identification of pattern interferences was done on syntactical, lexical-semantic, morphological and phonological levels. The analysis of the Afrikaans of the respondents revealed the following: (a) that there are certain patterns in Afrikaans that are foreign and unknown to the Motswana, for example, the number of vowels and consonants. Afrikaans has more vowels and consonants than Setswana. This causes great confusion and consequently, interference. Diphthongs are totally absent in Setswana and the Motswana has difficulty in pronouncing these sounds; (b) that pattern interference occurs in the case of borrowed words. Where apparently pupils first met a borrowed word in Setswana, difficult interferences occur in Afrikaans; (c) that pupils experience difficulty with certain Afrikaans grammatical rules because these are not found in Setswana, for example, rules relating to word-order where conjunctions are used, e.g. rules relating to the past tense, the spelling of word, combination of sounds the pronunciation of certain words; (d) that error analysis extablished to a great extent the transference of the pattern of the mother tongue, and at the same time revealed an un-favourable teaching situation for Afrikaans. In other word, unqualifiedlanguage teachers, inadequate library facilities, etc; (e) it was established that pupils only speak afrikaans when they are at school and in the Afrikaans lesson; outside the classroom situation they use very little Afrikaans. It is very seldom that pupils were able to say exactly what they wished to say. It was necessary to go back to them to ascertain what they had wished to say of write; (f) the media does not create a situation favourable to the acquisition of Afrikaans, because Afrikaans is never used. Radio and television programmes are only broadcast in English and Setswana in Bophuthatswana. The local newspaper is only in English. One can conclude that Afrikaans is a third language for the Batswana in Bophuthatswana. English can be considered a second language because it is used as a medium of instruction in schools and at the university. In general, it can be said that the respondents have nothing against Afrikaans as a language. They were very positively disposed towards this study.
- Humanities