Vokaalverandering en die verskuiwende aksent
Breitenbach, Johan Hendrik
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The phonetic aspects concerned with the well-nigh universal phenomenon that vowels in unstressed syllables are often subject to Change, have been investigated in this study with reference to morphologically related Afrikaans word-couples of the type ['me:dis - mada'seina]. An acoustic-auditory based articulatory vowel classification had to be drawn in place of the outmoded Jonesonian classification. Contrary to prevailing views it has been found that all Afrikaans vowels can be modified (neutralised) to [a], but then with obvious degrees of difference. Neutralisation of rounded dorsal vowels [o, o, u] occur far less fraquently than neutralisation of frontal vowels [i, e l e]. No word-couple could be found where [u>a], and as regards [o] and [o], only one each, viz ., [kole'nes] and [kole'sa:l]. The [e] is modified to [i] (frontalisation) in examples like ['e:tar - i'te:ris]. Medialising of [o>u.], compare [ sko:l - sku'li:r], is an Afrikaans phonetic phenomenon which occurs much more consistently than the neutralisation of any vowel. In sub-stressed and unstressed syllables, [o] and [u] interchange, compare [profa'te:r - pru'fe:tJ. [u] and raveal almost total and [i, o] and [a] strong resistance to syllable nuclear change, while especially [e] and [0 J but al 0 [E J are easily modifiable, except, among others, in words where a shift of stress is not accompanied by a regrouping of phonen in syllables and no nuclear changes whatsoever occur. The most elementary mechanism basic to nuclear change is the transsyllabic anticipation and retention in the pharynx and lips. Additional relevant factors are the articulatory nature of the syllable-nucleus concerned, the dominant nature of the rounded lip-shape, the spread of syllablenuclei in the word and the need of natural muscular coordination. Acceleration and reduction of intensity in the unstressed syllables are the only properties of stress which further nuclear variation. If it is true that neutralisation occurs more in Afrikaans than in other languages, then the Afrikaans articulation basis is conducive to this phenomenon of nuclear variation., With the exception of medialisation, influence of English promotes nuclear variation in Afrikaans; the particular tendency to modify is, however, latently present in the articulation of Afrikaans.
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