Estate farming and Ndau people’s displacement from Zimbabwe into Mozambique, c.1940-2010
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This article focuses on the development of plantation farming close to the Zimbabwe-Mozambique border and its effects on the Ndau people. Colonial incursions on the Zimbabwe/Mozambique border areas resulted in the development of estate farming in the Chimanimani/Chipinge region. European settlements in the borderland led to land expropriation by the colonial state and multi-national companies for estate farming. These estates ranged from natural and exotic forests, coffee, tea to sugarcane plantations. The majority of the plantations lie along the Zimbabwe/Mozambique border. The estates are vast, numerous and cover a significant area of Chimanimani/Chipinge district. Apart from protecting tree and animal species, the promotion of tourism and provision of employment, the estates have assisted in the development of amenities and infrastructure in the region. In spite of the positives highlighted above, this article argues that the establishment of plantation agriculture displaced the Ndau people from their ancestral lands and pushed them into Mozambique.