Model for participative management in Botswana's secondary schools
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This study explored participative management in secondary schools in Botswana and in particular examined the different levels of participation in school management by senior management, middle management, teachers, student leadership, PTA and other stakeholders. Participative management in secondary schools allows for inclusion of key stakeholders in managing schools and the study specifically explored participants' views on the nature and level of participation in school management. The study further examined the implementation of the Ministry of Education and Skills Development's Pastoral Policy of 2008 which acts as the preferred model for stakeholder participation. Through the study of seven (7) senior secondary schools in the central district of Botswana, participative management in these schools was analysed from the responses of the 105 participants who took part in this study. Data was collected from school heads, deputy school heads, and heads of department, senior teachers, teachers, student leadership and PTA chairpersons. However, as established in this research study implementation of the Pastoral Policy (PP) in the participating schools has been very minimal even after eight years of the policy's existence. The major achievement in the implementation of the PP has been the dividing of schools into mini-schools named houses which was accomplished in all schools. However, the major strategies of the PP, that of setting up coordination and monitoring structures has not been accomplished and hence no checks and balances for its implementation. The study employed a qualitative research method, following a phenomenological case study design. The data collection strategies included group interviews and questionnaire for student leaders and individual interviews for all other participants. Data analysis for the study employed the thematic content analysis. The study also engaged on a review of key documents such as the education policies, the pastoral policy, staff manuals, national development plans, school prospectuses and PTA guidelines. Drawing from the study findings and the literature review, the study proposes a Model for Participative Management (MPM). The model will be of particular use in the implementation of the Pastoral Policy and especially in guiding school management on bringing on board and coordinating all relevant stakeholders. The model builds on the current policies that provides for inclusive participation of all stakeholders, teachers and parents in school management.
- Education 
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