Measuring and understanding eudaimonic well-being: a bifactor exploratory structural equation modelling approach
The overall aim of this study was to measure and understand eudaimonic well-being (EWB) by exploring the psychometric properties and measurement invariance of selected measures of EWB using recently developed statistical analytical techniques. Across three manuscripts recently developed statistical analytical techniques, that address some of the limitations inherent to traditional statistical techniques, were applied to three measures of eudaimonic well-being that operationalise three well-being theories respectively. In Manuscript 1, CFA, bifactor CFA, ESEM, and bifactor ESEM were applied to the English (n = 326 ), Afrikaans (n = 478), and Setswana (n = 260) versions of the 21-item Basic Psychological Needs Scale (BPNS, Gagné, 2003) in three nonprobability South African student samples. For all language versions of the BPNS the three-factor bifactor ESEM model displayed superior fit compared to the other models that were fitted, but the fit was still inadequate for the BPNS-English and BPNS-Setswana and several items had to be removed to obtain models with adequate fit. A single item was removed from the bifactor ESEM model for the BPNS-Afrikaans that initially displayed close to adequate fit. Problematic scale items were removed because of problematic item formulation and scale construction. The general psychological need satisfaction factor showed sufficient reliability scores for all language versions of the BPNS, and only the Competence and Relatedness specific factors of the BPNS-Afrikaans showed sufficient reliability indicators. Partial metric invariance of a reduced three-factor bifactor ESEM model was supported in the English and Afrikaans groups. Although the BPNS-Afrikaans showed potential for use, alternative measures of basic psychological needs should be considered for the current English and Setswana groups. The universal application of basic psychological needs is questioned in a South African context. In Manuscript, 2 CFA, bifactor CFA, ESEM, and bifactor ESEM were applied to the English (n = 326, Sample 1), Afrikaans (n = 478, Sample 2) and Setswana (n = 260, Sample 3) versions of the Questionnaire for Eudaimonic Well-being (QEWB, Waterman et al., 2010) in three nonprobability South African student groups, and the English version of the QEWB in a nonprobability South African adult sample (n = 261, Sample 4). One-, three-, and four-factor structures were fitted to the data. For student Samples 1-3 the one-factor model displayed poor fit. Although the four-factor structure displayed slightly improved fit to the three-factor structure, the latter was selected for parsimony. The three-factor bifactor ESEM model fitted Samples 1-3, although item 9 had to be removed for Sample 3. The general factor, and some specific factors, obtained sufficient reliability scores for the student samples, pointing towards the potential for use of the QEWB in the current samples. Configural invariance of the QEWB among the student samples was supported. For adult Sample 4, all models tested yielded poor model fit. The results were likely influenced by the developmental phase of the participants. Future research should explore the manifestation and measurement of eudaimonic well-being in different developmental stages.
- Health Sciences