Die evaluering van 'n oudiopsigfonologiese verrykingsprogram vir psigologiestudente
Page 77 and page 167 missing. The aim of the study was to present and evaluate an Audio-Psycho-Phonological (APP) programme regarding the improvement of listening skills, intrapsychic and interpersonal functioning, and psychological well-being in a group of undergraduate Psychology students. As potential helpers they are required to develope their communication skills, and thus the investigation could explore the communication enrichment potential of APP, especially within a salutogenic framework. In the literature survey Antonovsky's salutogenic paradigm with its emphasis on enhanchement of psychological well-being was outlined and subsequently the concept of psychological enrichment. Within this context, APP was discussed in terms of Tomatis' theoretical assumptions and research findings and especially in terms of the process of hearing/listening education. Stimulation of the listening function by means of the Electronic Ear presupposes that the individual will progressively utilize his/her listening potential, and concomitantly experience physiological, psychological and cognitive changes associated with enhanced communication. In the experimental investigation a two group, pre-post-and follow-up testing design was used. An availability sample (n=32) of undergraduate Psychology students of the PU for CHE was solicited and assigned to an experimental (n=18) and control group (n=14) on the basis of student choice. The experimental group participated in the APP enrichment programme and completed a total of 60 half hour sessions of sound stimulation, including regular sessions of individual counseling. The post-testing was conducted approximately one week after completion of the programme. Follow-up testing took place after three months. Finally, a brief post follow-up evaluation was conducted 7 months after completion of the programme. The test battery included the following: Biographical Questionnaire, Listening test, Personal Orientation Inventory (POI}, Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R), Social Skills Inventory (SSI), Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation (FIRO-B), Friend Evaluation Questionnaire, Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Affectometer 2 (AFM) and Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC). Since participation in the project was based on an availability sample, the statistical analysis was not aimed at determining the significance of differences in terms of p-values, but at establishing the level of practical significance in terms of mean differences between groups, as computed by means of Cohen's ct-statistic (effect size). In addition reliability indexes were determined for the main measurements in terms of Cronbach alpha's. The results of the psychometric assessment confirmed satisfactorily reliability indices. Futhermore, the findings confirmed some practically significant improvements on the Listening Test as well as a number of tendencies towards listening enrichment which were consolidated during the follow-up assessment. Thus the APP enrichment programme resulted in practically significant improvements of listening aptitude which were maintained after three months. It also emerged that the programme resulted in tendencies towards improved intrapsychic functioning as well as improved interpersonal relationships, confirmed by the best friend. Though the questionnaire findings were limited to tendencies towards psychological enrichment, it surprizingly included psychological well-being, as evidenced by a markedly increased sense of coherence, unfortunately not maintained at follow-up. It was finally concluded that the results underscored both the demonstrated enrichment potential of APP, and that optimal enrichment effects were probably obscured by methodological deficits. Recommendations included that APP's optimal enrichment effects could only be elucidated by an expanded sound stimulation programme of 90 sessions, combined with an explicit salutogenic enrichment climate, including individual enrichment objectives as the basis of structured researcher-participant interaction.
- Humanities