Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio is inversely related to nitric oxide synthesis in young black adults: the African-PREDICT study
Mels, Catharina M.C.
Schutte, Aletta E.
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Hypertension is common in black populations and is known to be associated with low nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. We compared plasma and urinary NO-related markers and plasma creatine kinase (CK) levels between young healthy black and white adults along with the associations of these markers with the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (uACR), which is a surrogate marker of endothelial and kidney function. We included 1105 participants (20–30 years). We measured the uACR, plasma CK, plasma and urinary arginine, homoarginine, asymmetric (ADMA) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), urinary ornithine/citrulline, nitrate and nitrite, and malondialdehyde (MDA). In addition, the urinary nitrate-to-nitrite ratio (UNOxR) was calculated and used as a measure of circulating NO bioavailability. The uACR was comparable between the groups, yet the black group had lower urinary nitrate (by −15%) and UNOxR values (by −18%) (both p ≤ 0.001), higher plasma (by +9.6%) and urinary (by +5.9%) arginine (both p ≤ 0.004), higher plasma (by +13%) and urinary (by +3.7%) ADMA (both p ≤ 0.033), and higher CK (by +9.5%) and MDA (by +19%) (both p < 0.001) compared with white adults. Plasma and urinary homoarginine were similar between the groups. In the multiple regression analysis, we confirmed the inverse associations of the uACR with both plasma (adj. R2 = 0.066; β = −0.209; p = 0.005) and urinary (adj. R2 = 0.066; β = −0.149; p = 0.010) homoarginine and with the UNOxR (adj. R2 = 0.060; β = −0.122; p = 0.031) in the black group only. The overall less favorable NO profile and higher CK and MDA levels in the black cohort along with the adverse associations with the uACR may reflect the vulnerability of this cohort to the early development of hypertension
- Faculty of Health Sciences