Investigating family-friendly work arrangements in the South African financial services industry: effects of work-to-family enrichment and gender
MetadataShow full item record
As a result of major changes that took place in the workforce, organisations began to consider implementing flexible work arrangements to help both men and women balance their work and family domains. By providing such arrangements to employees, they are enabled to address work and family responsibilities effectively. This may increase levels of work-to-family enrichment, leaving employees feeling cared for by their organisations. Due to this perception, employees reciprocate by showing higher levels of job satisfaction and lower levels of turnover intention (Casper & Harris, 2008; Chen, et al., 2018; Masuda et al., 2012; McNall, et al., 2010; Russo & Buonocore, 2012; Ryan & Kossek, 200; Timms, et al.,2015; Wayne et al., 2006). The general objective of the present study was to assess the relationship between flexible work arrangements, work-to-family enrichment, job satisfaction and turnover intention among employees within the financial services industry. The aim further was to assess the role of gender (e.g. males and females) as a moderator and work-to-family enrichment as a mediator within the above-mentioned relationship. The study used a cross-sectional survey. In addition, a combination of quota and judgmental non-probability sampling (N = 404) was done within the South African financial services industry which included various institutes. Measuring instruments were used to collect the following data: biographical characteristics; flexible work arrangements (used by McNall, Masuda and Nicklin); work-to-family work enrichment (MACE Work-Family Enrichment instrument); job satisfaction (Job Satisfaction scale) and turnover intention (TIS-6). Cronbach’s alfa coefficients were calculated to determine the reliability of the findings and correlations applied to identify possible relationships between the constructs. Structural equation modelling with AMOS was used to determine the mediating effect of work-to-family enrichment; Multiple regression analysis determined the moderating role of gender. The results of the study indicated a positive relationship between flexible work arrangements and all dimensions of work-to-family enrichment: work-to-family perspectives, work-to-family affect, work-to-family time-management and work-to-family socio-capital. Work-to-family enrichment also proved to be related statistically and positively to job satisfaction. The results further showed that work-to-family enrichment mediates the relationship between flexible work arrangements, job satisfaction and turnover intention. Gender was established as moderator, especially between flexible work arrangements and the work-to-family perspectives dimension, particularly for females. It was also found that gender moderates the relationship between work-to-family enrichment and job satisfaction, especially for females. To conclude, applicable recommendations are made for organisations to follow-up and for future research on the topic.