Halogenated natural products and anthropogenic persistent organic pollutants in chokka squid (Loligo reynaudii) from three sites along the South Atlantic and Indian Ocean coasts of South Africa
Uren, Ryan C.
Van der Lingen, Carl D.
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Chokka squid (Loligo reynaudii) from three sites along the South African coast were analyzed for halogenated natural products (HNPs) and anthropogenic persistent organic pollutants (POPs). HNPs were generally more than one order of magnitude more abundant than POPs. The most prevalent pollutant, i.e. the HNP 2,3,3′,4,4′,5,5′-heptachloro-1′-methyl-1,2′-bipyrrole (Q1), was detected in all chokka squid samples with mean concentrations of 105, 98 and 45 ng/g lipid mass, respectively, at the Indian Ocean (site A), between both oceans (site B) and the South Atlantic Ocean (site C). In addition, bromine containing polyhalogenated 1′-methyl-1,2′-bipyrroles (PMBPs), 2,4,6-tribromophenol (2,4,6-TBP, up to 28 ng/g lipid mass), polybrominated methoxy diphenyl ethers, MHC-1, TBMP and other HNPs were also detected. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were the predominant class of anthropogenic POPs. PCB 153 was the most abundant PCB congener in chokka squid from the Indian Ocean, and PCB 138 in samples from the South Atlantic Ocean and between both oceans