A preceptorship model to facilitate clinical nursing education in Botswana
Background: Despite the wide use of preceptorship there is evidence that its role is not clearly understood or supported resulting in several challenges associated with the implementation of preceptorship. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a preceptorship model to facilitate clinical nursing education in Botswana based on the perceptions of the nurse educators and preceptors. Methodology: The study was done in two phases; namely empirical and model development phases. In Phase I, a convergent parallel mixed method approach was used. For the quantitative component, n=107 preceptors and n=50 nurse were recruited using convenient sampling and A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection from both preceptors and nurse educators. In the qualitative component, three focus group discussions were used for both educators (n=17) and preceptors (n=22). In Phase II, Dickoff, James and Wiedenbach survey list guided the development of the conceptual framework for model development. The model was developed using Chinn and Kramer's approach. Results: The results from both quantitative and qualitative components indicated the need for a preceptorship model. The findings formed the basis for the development of a preceptorship model. The model consists of the following components: Agent, Recipient, Context, Procedure Dynamics and Terminus. Conclusions: Preceptorship is a widely used clinical teaching strategy in nursing education in many countries including Botswana. However, a lot of challenges associated with the implementation of preceptorship have been identified by all stakeholders. Lack of resources and processes, inadequate training and support, inappropriate selection and placement of preceptors, were highlighted as impacting negatively on its effectiveness. The need for a preceptorship model to facilitate preceptorship cannot be overemphasized in this regard. This model will guide the planning and implementation of preceptorship procedures by different stakeholders to improve its effectiveness in clinical nursing education. Recommendations: Collaborative efforts by both HTI's and clinical services in planning, implementation and evaluation of preceptorship are necessary. Management in the clinical setting and HTI's need to recognize the value of preceptorship and provide support to the preceptors for their contribution to the training and education of students. Follow up studies on the effectiveness, practicability and relevance of the model are recommended.
- Health Sciences