Psycho-situational dynamics of quality of work-life and psychological well-being of Nigerian police personnel: a mediating study
Ogungbamila, Adepeju Blessing
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Previous studies have identified occupational burnout and frustration of needs as major variables influencing police personnel's quality of work-life and psychological well-being in Nigeria. Less research attention has focused on how perceived organisational support may affect the extent to which psychological needs and job demands are related with quality of work life and psychological well-being. These connections have implications for enhancing the well-being of police personnel, especially in Nigeria. This study, therefore, investigated the extent to which psycho-situational factors (psychological needs and job demands) predicted police personnel's quality of work life and psychological well-being. It also examined the mediating roles of perceived organisational support on the relations of psychological needs and job demands to quality of work life and psychological well-being. The research employed a cross-sectional survey research design. Using proportionate and simple random sampling techniques, 1,952 police personnel (867 females; 1085 males) with a mean age of 37.24 (SD=8.14) from 6 police headquarters in the 6 south-western states in Nigeria participated in the study. The study instruments were Basic Psychological Needs Scale (α=.87), Job Demands Scale (α=.78), Perceived Organisational Support Scale (α=.81), Work-Related Quality of Life Scale (α=.85), and Psychological Well-being Scale (a=.85). Six hypotheses were tested using hierarchical multiple regression and structural equation modelling. Results indicated that psychological needs significantly predicted quality of work life such that police personnel who had opportunities to satisfy their psychological needs tended to report a high quality of work life [β=.40; ΔR$^2$ =.15; F(8, 1943)=55.70, p<.01]. However, job demands did not have a significant influence on police personnel's quality of work life [β=-.04, p>.05; ΔR$^2$ =.00; F(9, 1942)=49.82, p<.01]. The results further revealed that satisfaction of psychological needs significantly predicted police personnel's level of psychological well-being [β=.28; ΔR$^2$ =.08; F(8, 1943)=26.35,p<.01], while job demands led to a significant decrease in the level of psychological well-being of police personnel [β=-.11,p<.01; ΔR$^2$ =.07; F(9, 1942)=26.34,p<.01]. The results of the mediation analysis, using structural equation modelling, showed that perceived organisational support enhanced the extent to which psychological needs increased police personnel's level of quality of work life; but it did not enhance the level at which job demands reduced quality of work life of police personnel (x$^2$=0.00; df= 0; p<.001; CFI=0.92; GFI=1.00; AGFI=0.96; RMSEA=0.04; NFI=1.00; TLI=1.00). Perceived organisational support increased the extent to which psychological needs enhanced the level of psychological well-being of police personnel; but it, however, reduced the level at which job demands decreased their level of psychological well-being (x$^2$=3.56; df=1; CFI=0.97; GFI=0.99; AGF/=0.99; RMSEA=0.03; NFI=1.00; TL/=0.98). The findings of this study indicate that perceived organisational support and satisfaction of basic psychological needs are important factors in police personnel's quality of work life and psychological well-being. In order to enhance the quality of work life and psychological well-being of police personnel, it is recommended that the Ministry of Police Affairs in Nigeria should provide opportunities and support that guarantee the satisfaction of their basic psychological needs.
- Humanities