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Sex and site differences in urinary excretion of conjugated pyrene metabolites in the West African Shorthorn cattle
Nakayama, Shouta, M.M.
Marfo, Jemima T.
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Industrialization, economic and population growth rates in Ghana have increased the release of contaminants including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into the environment through which humans and animals are exposed. Cattle is reported to be exposed to high levels of PAHs through feed and inhalation. Once exposed, PAHs are metabolized and excreted in urine, feces or bile. In a previous study, cattle in Ghana was reported to excrete high levels of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHPyr) due to high exposure to the parent compound, pyrene. 1-OHPyr is further metabolized to glucuronide and sulfate conjugates. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the sex and site differences in urinary excretion of conjugated pyrene metabolites using cattle urine collected from rural and urban sites of the Ashanti region, Ghana. From the results, geometric mean concentration adjusted by specific gravity indicated that 1-OHPyreneGlucuronide (PyG) was the most abundant conjugate followed by PyrenediolSulfate (M3). The sum of conjugated pyrene metabolites and sum of both conjugated and deconjugated pyrene metabolites correlated significantly with PyG, PydiolSulfate (M2) and PydiolSulfate (M3). The study revealed no significant difference in urinary excretion of conjugated pyrene metabolites between rural and urban sites. This indicated that similar to urban sites, cattle in rural sites were exposed to high levels of pyrene. There was no significant difference in urinary concentrations of conjugated pyrene metabolites between sexes