Accumulation patterns and risk assessment of metals and metalloid in muscle and offal of free-range chickens, cattle and goat in Benin City, Nigeria
Ogbomida, Emmanuel Temiotan
Nakayama, Shouta M.M.
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The use of free range animals for monitoring environmental health offers opportunities to detect exposure and assess the toxicological effects of pollutants in terrestrial ecosystems. Potential human health risk of dietary intake of metals and metalloid via consumption of offal and muscle of free range chicken, cattle and goats by the urban population in Benin City was evaluated. Muscle, gizzard, liver and kidney samples were analyzed for Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb concentrations using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) while Hg was determined using Hg analyzer. Mean concentrations of metals (mg/kg ww) varied significantly depending upon the tissues and animal species. Human health risk estimations for children and adults showed estimated daily intake (EDI) values of tissues below oral reference dose (RfD) threshold for non essential metals Cd, As, Pb and Hg thus strongly indicating no possible health risk via consumption of animal based food. Calculated Hazard quotient (THQ) was less than 1 (< 1) for all the metals analyzed for both adult and children. However, Cd and As had the highest value of THQ suggestive of possible health risk associated with continuous consumption of Cd and As contaminated animal based foods. Hazard Index (HI) for additive effect of metals was higher in chicken liver and gizzard for children and chicken liver for adults. Thus, HI indicated that chicken liver and gizzard may contribute significantly to adult and children dietary exposure to heavy metals. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed a clear species difference in metal accumulation between chickens and the ruminants. This study provides baseline data for future studies and also valuable evidence of anthropogenic impacts necessary to initiate national and international policies for control of heavy metal and metalloid content in food items