The integration of digital video discs (DVDs) and multimedia in the learning area social sciences
De Sousa, Luiza Olim
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The integration of ICT within the new Curriculum of the National Education Department of South Africa into Learning Areas is important for pre-service teacher training at university. The Learning Area Social Sciences (LASS) pre-service teachers are exposed to the integration of ICT and multimedia resources in teaching and learning. They can be trained to plan lessons that are more active and learner-centered and so slow the widening gap between South Africa and the developed world with respect to ICT integration and the use of multimedia resources in teaching and learning at schools. The interactive digital video disc (DVD) and portable DVD player is a cheap, accessible, and practical alternative that ensures the integration of ICT and a variety of multimedia resources, in teaching and learning within LASS. The purpose of this study within the LASS is to determine what type of multimedia resources can be used to the benefit of student learning; what the structure and format of the multimedia on the DVD should look like to achieve selected learning outcomes; and to determine how one can integrate ICT, specifically the DVD, into teaching and learning. A quasi-experimental research design was used in this study. Four intact groups were exposed to different experimental treatments/interventions and the four groups acted as their own controls. The control group always consisted of two groups. The participants included the total population of bona fide, full-time, first-year students taking the compulsory module in LASS as part of the BEd Intermediated and Senior phase Programme at the North-West University (Potchefstroom Campus). They were exposed to class tests, a semester test and an examination as measuring instruments. The material developed for the intervention was two multimedia DVDs. The one contained predominantly text with audio (DVD 1) and the other contained still graphics, audio, text and video, etc. (DVD 2). Two DVDs were made for History and two for Geography, respectively, for each of the four interventions. The data was analysed by means of an ANCOVA. It compared the variances (s2) within and across the three groups (two separate experimental groups and two groups combined to form one control group), controlling for the covariate (ability measured by the pre-test). The results of the study found that the type of multimedia resources used to the benefit of LASS student learning within the disciplines of History and Geography include multimedia such as visual and moving images and text with educational content. The nature of History and Geography themes are factors that need to be taken into consideration when deciding on the structure and format of the multimedia on the DVD to ensure that student learning within the LASS achieves the selected learning outcomes. It was also found that ICT, specifically the DVD, and multimedia can be integrated successfully in the teaching and learning of the LASS. The study found that the integration of DVDs and multimedia in the LASS can be applied at tertiary level in a developing country without placing participants at a disadvantage.
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