Change management in the Botswana water sector
The purpose of this thesis has been to assess how change management interventions during the Water Sector Reform Process were perceived by the employees in efforts to help them to understand and embrace change. A questionnaire was designed and distributed to 342 respondents. The respondents involved in the study consisted of Water Utilities employees from Gaborone, Lobatse, Palapye, Selebi-Phikwe and Francistown. The analysis demonstrates several key findings: data analysis reveals that management interventions during the Water Sector Reform Process were negatively perceived by the employees in understanding and embracing change. The findings reveal that communication, leadership and employee participation all have a direct impact on how employees are able to embrace change. Training and development were found to also have an impact on employees' support for change. The motivations for organizational change are significant and vital to the long-term survival and competitive ability of any firm. The research is subject to the normal limitations of survey research. The study used data provided by all categories of employees at Water Utilities Corporation which may provide perceived and subjective measures. However, this can be overcome by using multiple methods to collect data in future studies. Interestingly, the findings here may be generalizable outside Botswana, i.e. a similar country to Botswana such as Middle-Income Countries. Management should ensure clear communication, effective leadership; encourage employee participation and effect training and development for up skilling of staff. The findings suggest that change was found to be important to employees because of its effect on the survival of an organisation and its development or transformation due the integration of the entity after a substantial merger process. The study integrates unintentional resistance to organisational change perception constructs. Very few studies have been performed in Botswana to investigate and understand this issue. Therefore, the research can make a useful contribution.