Disposisionele veranderlikes, organisasieklimaat en integriteit in die Suid-Afrikaanse Polisiediens
Integrity is considered a high priority within the context of policing, as is the case in the South African Police Service, because it is an essential characteristic of effective policing. Although an integrity framework was developed for the SAPS, no research has yet been conducted to determine which aspects in the SAPS contribute to integrity. This study focuses on the development of an integrity model, where the role played by situational variables (specifically organisational climate) as well as by individual variables (the dispositional factors, locus of control and sense of coherence) on integrity, was determined. The Integrity Profile 200 (IP200) was adapted for utilisation in the SAPS and an Organisational Climate Questionnaire was developed as part of this study. These instruments were used to measure integrity and organisational climate respectively, and both these constructs were explained by means of empirically tested models. The construct of integrity is very complex and the reasons for it are difficult to give. Causes of human behaviour in general can be divided into two broad categories, namely situational causes, which include all environmental factors and dispositional factors, which have to do with human nature. Literature indicates that integrity in general, and specifically in a policing context, relates to both organisational climate (as a situational or environmental factor) and the dispositional variables such as sense of coherence and locus of control. A cross-sectional design was used. The study population consisted of 1776 members of the personnel of the 14 Presidential police stations, including support and functional personnel. The following measuring instruments were used in this study: a Biographical questionnaire, the Integrity Profile 200, Organisational Climate, Locus of Control and Life Orientation questionnaires. Cronbach alpha coefficients, inter-item correlations and confirmatory factor analysis were used to assess the reliability and validity of the measuring instruments. Analysis of variance was applied to determine the item bias with regard to race. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. T-tests and one-way variance analysis were used to determine differences between the sub-groups in the population. Canonical and stepwise multiple regression analysis as well as partial correlations were used to determine the relationships between the dependent and independent variables. An integrity model as well as an organisational climate model were developed and empirically tested within the SAPS environment. The integrity model consisted of an individual as well as a corporate facet. The individual facet comprises two factors, namely integrity restricting orientation as well as moral conscientiousness and accountability. The corporate facet comprises one factor only, namely organisational management integrity. The results of the one-way variance analysis indicate a significant difference in integrity among some of the rank groups, although no conclusive evidence could be found to prove that salary level is related to integrity. The organisational climate model consists of four dimensions or factors, namely interpersonal climate, organisational support, supervision and task characteristics. These four factors are influenced by the human, social, technological, structural, task and goal environments of the organisation. Significant differences were reported regarding the experience of the organisational climate between the various personnel categories, divisions, races, tenure and qualifications. The results showed that both the individual and organisational facets of integrity are predicted by a combination of situational (organisational climate) and dispositional factors (locus of control and sense of coherence). The individual integrity facets are predicted by supervision, sense of coherence, internal and external locus of control. The corporate or organisational facet of integrity is determined by the interpersonal climate, organisational support, supervision, task characteristics and external locus of control. Recommendations for the organisation and future research are made.