Consensus sequence determination and elucidation of the evolutionary history of a rotavirus Wa variant reveal a close relationship to various Wa variants derived from the original Wa strain
Wentzel, Johannes F.
Van Dijk, Alberdina A.
O’Neill, Hester G.
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The consensus nucleotide sequence of a human rotavirus Wa strain, with only a partially known passage history, was determined with sequence-independent amplification and next generation 454 pyrosequencing. This rotavirus Wa strain had the expected genome constellation of G1-P-I1-R1-C1-M1- A1-N1-T1-E1-H1 and was designated RVA/Human-tc/USA/WaCS/1974/G1P. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a close relationship to four human rotavirus Wa variants (Wag5re, Wag7/8re, ParWa and VirWa) derived from the original 1974 human isolate. There were rearrangements in the Wag5re- and Wag7/8re variants in genome segments 5 (Wag5re) and 7 and 8 (Wag7/8re), which were not present in WaCS. Pairwise comparisons and a combined molecular clock for the Wa rotavirus genome indicated a close relationship between WaCS and ParWa and VirWa. These results suggest that WaCS is most probably an early cell culture adapted variant from the initial gnotobiotic pig passaged Wa isolate. Evolutionary pressure analysis identified a possible negative selected amino acid site in VP1 (genome segment 1) and a likely positive selected site in VP4 (genome segment 4). The WaCS may be more appropriate as a rotavirus Wa reference sequence than the current composite Wa reference genome.