Measuring happiness: results of a cross-national study
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The aims of this chapter are to investigate the structural equivalence, item bias, and reliability of the Orientations to Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ) and Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) in the southern African context. Convenience samples were taken from employees in Namibia (n = 216) and managers in South Africa (n = 507). A biographical questionnaire, the OHQ, and the SWLS were administered. The results showed that structural equivalence of the three-factor model of orientations to happiness (i.e., pleasure, engagement, and meaning) was not supported. One subscale of the OHQ, engagement, was problematic in terms of validity and internal consistency in the South African and Namibian samples. Evidence was found for item bias in the OHQ. The results showed that one item of the SWLS under-fitted the data in both the southern African samples.
- Faculty of Humanities