The effect of identity and personality on cultural intelligence among a group of young South Africans
Cultural intelligence (referred to as CQ) has gained increasing attention from research. This is because of the modern-day relevance to globalisation, international management and work diversification. Demographical shifts towards a more diverse South African population contribute to various challenges for successful cross-cultural interactions for young Afrikaans-speaking South Africans. Selective perception, social categorisation, stereotyping, attribution and diversity among South Africa‟s different cultures (race, gender, language, vocabulary, content, accent and appearances) are barriers that must be overcome. The study was a quantitative study. A cross-sectional survey was used to collect the data and to achieve the research objectives. Convenience and quota sampling methods were used to include a sample of young South Africans from a higher education institution (N=252). The participants were young South African students, white, Afrikaans speaking and between the ages of 18 and 22. Questionnaires were distributed, and the participants completed the questionnaire during class and were given 2 hours to complete the questionnaires. The statistical analysis was carried out with the IBM SPSS statistics and the Mplus 7.11 programme. Product-moment correlation coefficients were used to specify the relationships between the variables and multiple regressions to determine which dimensions of personality and identity predicted CQ. The general objective of this research is to determine the relationship between Identity, Personality and Cultural Intelligence among young South Africans. The Erickson Psychosocial Stage Inventory (EPSI) and the Multi-Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) was used to measure personal, ethnic and religious identity. The SAPI-questionnaire was used to measure the constructs, conscientiousness, extraversion, openness, soft-heartedness, relationship-harmony, intellect, integrity and facilitating. Furthermore, the Four Factor Model of Cultural Intelligence Scale was applied to measure the dimensions of CQ, namely, meta-cognitive CQ, cognitive CQ, motivational CQ and behavioural CQ. This study indicated a positive relationship between cognitive CQ and the other three components of CQ. Conscientiousness, emotional stability, extroversion, facilitating, intellect and openness related positively to meta-cognitive CQ. Facilitating, intellect and openness were found to be positively related with motivational CQ. Furthermore, conscientiousness, emotional stability, extroversion, intellect, relationship harmony and soft-heartedness related positively with behavioural CQ. Religious identity has a negative effect on cognitive CQ. Furthermore, intellect, facilitating and ethnic identity predicted meta-cognitive CQ. Soft-heartedness, facilitating, extroversion and religious identity had a positive effect on motivational CQ, influencing young Afrikaans speaking South Africans interest and drive in adapting to cultural differences. Furthermore, soft-heartedness and conscientiousness had a positive effect on behavioural CQ. Recommendations were made for future research and for practise.