Job demands, job resources and work-related flow of employees in the mining industry in South Africa
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The mining industry plays an important role in the economy of South Africa. This industry is an employer of thousands of people and the development of South Africa has depended on the development of the mining industry in more than one way. However, working conditions in the mining industry is poor, harsh and dangerous and employees are also faced with job insecurity. This may lead to stressors in the working environment and these stressors, which are closely related to work characteristics, may have negative effects on employees as well as on their productivity levels. Studies relating organisational resources to work-related flow have provided additional evidence for the motivational potential of resources. The focus of this study is on job characteristics, consisting of job demands and job resources and whether these characteristics can foster work-related flow. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between job demands, job resources and work-related flow and to determine whether the availability of job resources and the lack of job demands foster the experience of work-related flow. The research method consisted of a literature review and an empirical study. A cross-sectional survey design was used o collect the data. An availability sample (N = 326) from employees in the mining industry was taken. The Job Demands and Resources Scale (JDRS) (which was developed for the purpose of this study to measure job demands and job resources for employees in the mining industry) and the Work-Related Flow scale (WOLF) and a biographical questionnaire were also administered The statistical analysis was carried out with the help of the SPSS programme and AMOS programme. The statistical methods utilised in the article consisted of descriptive statistics, Cronbach alpha coefficients, Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients and structural equation modelling methods. Pearson product moment correlation in this study showed that Supervision correlated positively with Task Freedom, Support, Pay and Benefits, Opportunities for Growth and Resources Availability. Workload correlated positively with Working Conditions. Working Conditions correlated positively with Working Hours and negatively with Resources Availability. Task Freedom correlated positively with Opportunities for Growth and Intrinsic Motivation, and Support correlated positively with Opportunity for Growth Pay and Benefits correlated positively with Opportunity for Growth and Resource Availability, whereas Opportunity for Growth correlated positively to Work Enjoyment. Resources Availability correlates negatively with Working Hours, and Absorption indicates a positive correlation to Work Enjoyment and Intrinsic Motivation. Work Enjoyment correlates positively to intrinsic Motivation A structural model of work-related flow for employees in the mining industry comprising of job demands, job resources and work-related flow was tested. Job Resources (i.e. Supervision, Task Freedom, Support, Pay and Benefits, Opportunity for Growth, and Resource Availability) may have a positive impact on Work-Related Flow and could increase the levels of work-related flow of employees in the mining industry. Job Demands (i.e. Workload, Working conditions, Job Security, and Working Hours) has a negative impact on Work-Related Flow, thus job demands may negatively influence the experience of work-related flow in employees in the mining industry. Recommendations for future research were made.