|dc.description.abstract||Controlled release formulations deliver an active ingredient over an extended period of time. It is an ideal dosage form for an active ingredient with a short elimination half-life. An active ingredient with a short elimination half-life would be released in small portions over an extended period of time and thus less frequent administration is necessary and this improve patient compliance. Other advantages of these formulations include: decreased side effects, constant drug levels in the blood, improvement in treatment efficiency and reduction in cost of administration. Controlled release beads are formulated in such a way that the active ingredient is embedded in a matrix of insoluble substance like chitosan; the dissolving drug then has to find its way through the pores of the matrix into the surrounding medium. The chitosan matrix swells to form a gel, the drug then has to first dissolve in the matrix and diffuse through the outer surface into the surrounding medium. Chitosan is a biocompatible, biodegradable polymer of natural origin. It has mucoadhesive properties as well as the ability to manipulate the tight junctions in the epithelium membrane and these properties have qualified chitosan as an effective drug carrier in controlled release dosage forms. The effect of a modern controlled release polymer namely Kollidon® SR in combination with chitosan on drug release was investigated. Ketoprofen was chosen as model drug. Ketoprofen is an anti-inflammatory drug that causes gastrointestinal side effects in conventional dosage forms. Ketoprofen has a short elimination half-life of 2.05 ± 0.58 h and this characteristic makes it an ideal candidate for use in a controlled release formulation. The aim of this study was to achieve controlled release and minimize gastrointestinal effects of ketoprofen with chitosan particles. Kollidon® SR was used as polymer because it exhibits pH independent release characteristics and previous studies have shown potential for this combination.
Chitosan beads and chitosan-Kollidon® SR beads, as well as chitosan granules and chitosan-Kollidon® SR granules, were prepared and investigated as potential controlled release formulations. Chitosan beads were prepared through the inotropic gelation method using tripolyphosphate as a cross linking agent. Granules were prepared through wet granulation using 2% v/v acetic acid as the granulating fluid or by dissolving ketoprofen in ethanol and Kollidon® SR in 2-pyrrolidinone and using the solution as granulating fluid. Kollidon® SR was added in concentrations of 0.25, 0.5 and 1% (w/v) in the bead formulations and concentrations of 1, 5 and 10% (w/w) in the granule formulations. The beads and granules were characterised by evaluating the following properties: morphology, drug loading and drug release. Additionally swelling and friability tests were also conducted on the bead formulations. The cross linking times of the bead formulations were varied to investigate the effect of cross linking time on the characteristics of the beads. Chitosan-Kollidon® SR beads showed promising results for controlled release formulations and ketoprofen were released over an extended period of time. Drug loading of the plain chitosan beads was 74.65 ± 0.71% and it was noted that the inclusion of Kollidon® SR in the beads resulted in an increase in drug loading and the formulation containing 1% (w/v) Kollidon® SR, cross linked for 30 minutes had a drug loading of 77.38 ± 0.01%. Drug loading of the beads that were cross linked for a longer time were slightly lower which is an indication that some of the drug might have leached out during cross linking. The degree of swelling was promising with some beads swelling to a degree of 2.5 in phosphate buffer solution pH 5.6. Granules had a drug loading between 81.73 ± 1.53% and 93.30 ± 0.50%. Ketoprofen release from the beads and the granules in PBS pH 7.40 at 37 °C over a period of 6 hours were investigated. The bead formulations were more effective in achieving controlled release and it was noted that the bead formulations that was cross linked for a longer period was more efficient in achieving controlled release. The granules did not form a matrix and were not effective in achieving controlled release. Controlled release of ketoprofen were achieved and the results show potential for chitosan-Kollidon® SR formulations in the future.||