Riglyne vir die effektiewe assessering van dosente in hoër onderwys binne die nasionale kwalifikasieraamwerk
Jacobsz, Johannes Marthinus
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This study focuses on the composition of guidelines for the effective assessment of lecturers - hence the emphasis is on the principle that assessment may be regarded as indispensable for professional development and for making a meaningful contribution towards ensuring quality in the context of the National Qualification framework. To this end a literature study was firstly undertaken regarding the nature of and criteria for effective assessment. The literature indicated that a variety of changes took place in South Africa since 1994, amongst others in the area of education, training and development. There have been numerous debates about this on stages and in political council halls, schools, colleges, technikons, universities, the press and the general workplace. Often the debates also centred on the low levels of competence and performance of workers in South Africa. Sometimes even the abilities, competence and performance levels of graduates and diplomandi have been questioned. In the context of these doubts people started investigating the role played by higher education, and more specifically lecturers, in ensuring that competent human resources leave the higher education environment for the professional world. As a result the purposeful assessment of lecturers has been identified as imperative. Furthermore, certain important factors that may influence the nature of and criteria for assessment, are discussed in this study. These include, amongst others, issues such as the education and training system, outcomes-based education and training, competence, knowledge escalation, the assessment of competence arid performance, the professional development of the lecturer, the concept assessment, the relation between assessment and ensuring quality, Bloom's taxonomy, different assessment instruments, the management of quality and the appointment of lecturers. The assessment of lecturers is viewed from a development-oriented perspective, where the focus is on continuous assessment that may be beneficial for individual, professional and organisational development. It is shown that a variety of qualitative and quantitative assessment instruments may be optimalised during formative as well as summative assessment, with which the training, needs, abilities, skills, competencies, capacity and performance of lecturers may be determined. The assessment of lecturers is regarded as a contributing factor in delivering and ensuring quality. It is also shown that the process should be undertaken in a managerial manner in order to continuously promote quality. Thereupon a discussion of assessment practices follows. In this discussion the focus is on the roles of lecturers in government-supported higher education institutions. The discussion is guided by the context which is determined by the implementation of the principles of the National Qualification Framework. A number of actors are identified who are directly or indirectly involved in the assessment of lecturers' competencies, outputs and performance in the higher education environment. It is also indicated that the implementation of the National Qualification Framework is guided by a number of legislations of which government-supported higher education institutions must give account in the performing of their tasks and functions. From literature it is clear that countries like the United Kingdom, the USA, Australia and New Zealand use assessment practices to ensure quality in the higher education environment. The role of the lecturer in that process is highlighted, and it is indicated that the assessment of the lecturer is indirectly addressed in the process. An empirical study was performed to establish, in the first instance, whether lecturers have been subjected to effective and appropriate training regarding the implementation of the National Qualification Framework. The second objective of the empirical study was to identify the implications of the assessment of lecturers attached to government-subsidised or public higher education institutions for all stakeholders. It is found in this study that a distinction should be made between the competence and performance assessment of lecturers. In addition it is indicated that the competence certification of lecturers must be regarded as imperative in order to facilitate performance-oriented functioning in the higher education environment. It is also found that lecturers must to a large extent cope with the process of giving account of all the new legislations and resulting expectations - sometimes under great pressure and amidst uncertainty and insufficient competence levels because of inadequate training, assessment and feedback. As a result lecturers do not experience the implementation of the National Qualification Framework as effective. In order to accommodate the changed and changing environment of the higher education sector, a conceptual model is composed to serve as a guide for the assessment of lecturers. In this model it is indicated that systems being developed for the assessment of lecturers should make provision for and account for a variety of factors, such as quality, primary and secondary actors, legislation, and the abilities, skills, competencies, capacity and performance levels of lecturers, assessment instruments, proactive, reactive, formative, summative, qualitative and quantitative assessment interventions. The synchronization and purposeful structuring of these factors may make a contribution towards creating a context which is beneficial to the professional development of the lecturer and consequently to performance in the higher education system.
- Education