The effect of labour in the history of education for Blacks in South Africa, 1948–1986
Petlele, Johannes Tlhage
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This research was undertaken as a result of the suspected failure of Apartheid Education between 1948 and 1986 to educate Blacks in job-related skills. Industrialists and other employer-institutions spent huge sums of money to equip black job-seekers who were mostly not ready for employment. The high drop-out rate from black primary and secondary schools became a matter of great concern to both the recipients of education and the international communities, especially with regard to the escalating level of poverty of the unskilled and unemployable Blacks in South Africa. In defining the statement of the problem for this research paper, the question: "What were the effects of views on labour in the history of education for Blacks in South Africa in the period (1948-1986)?" was answered with reference to the three primary objectives of this study .. The three primary objectives of this study were 1) to explore the prevailing views on labour-orientated education for black South Africans in the period 1948-1986; 2) to look into the suitability, feasibility and applicability of various labour theories in the education of black South Africans (1948-1986); and 3) to weigh the extent to which these theories influenced the educational circumstances of the Blacks in South Africa in the period 1948-1986. With this statement of the problem and the three primary objectives of the aim of this research in mind, the delimitation of the research area was done by means of definitions of key words such as labour; skilled labour; unskilled labour; history; education; Blacks and the • period 1948-1986. This helped to focus the topic and to present the reader with a clear conceptualisation about the research project. Once the topic had been delimited, a literature study was done in order to facilitate the fundamental relationship between education and labour. This included a Scriptural vision of education and labour, and a distinction between the concepts education, indoctrination, training and teaching. The literature study resulted in the researcher's own formulated theory, referred to as "the communication two-stream theory", based on the unavoidable relationship between education and labour. Secondly, a critical assessment of various theories on education and their implications for labour was done. These theories included Plato's theory of a Utopian state in education and labour, Liberalism, Individualism, Capitalism and the Marxist theory of production in education and labour, Socialism and Christian theory about education and labour. These theories revealed the effects of views on the effect of labour on education. Thirdly, the effects of views on the relationship between education and labour for Blacks in South Africa 1948-1986 were discussed. Various historical factors pertaining to education and labour for black South Africans before and after 1948 were discussed in terms of their relevancy for and influence on education and labour policies in the lives of the indigenous people of South Africa. The discussion included education and labour before 1652 and also colonial and mission education in South Africa as well as the effects of Capitalism and the monetary system on black labour and education. The National Party's rule from 1948 until the abolition of influx control in 1986 was then investigated. Apartheid education and its effects on the lives of many black South Africans (1948-1986), trade unionism, Commissions of inquiry in particular the Eiselen, Riekert, Wiehahn and De Lange Commissions, were analysed and utilised to explain the collapse of education under the National Party Government. The collapse of National Party rule in South Africa was hastened by internal and external factors such as activities of the students in South Africa before and after 1976, the ANC, PAC, SACP and also pressures by the international community. Fourthly, an empirical investigation by means of interviews reinforced the literature review to confirm the findings on the effects of views on labour-orientated education for Blacks in South Africa between 1948-1986. The study revealed that views on labour-oriented education enslaved Blacks as these views were informed by distorted and undesirable theories on the education of Blacks, instead of adhering to accepted Christian norms and values in education and labour. Apartheid ideology misled and blinkered the colonial and National Party governments in their planning and designing of education for Blacks in South Africa. The research revealed many injustices and harm done to Blacks by offering them an education suitable for slaves. It is recommended that a speedy solution be reached by the RSA government and parents with the help of NGO's to address the imbalances of the apartheid policies which ruined the lives of many Blacks in South Africa between 1948-1986.
- Education