Die stand van neuro–motoriese ontwikkeling en visueel–motoriese integrasie by 7– en 8–jarige leerders met leerverwante probleme
Van Niekerk, Chirine
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Various researchers highlight the role of neuro-motor and visual motor integration problems on learning-related barriers (Mutti et al., 1998; Goldstein & Britt, 1994; Kulp, 1999; Lotz et al., 2005; Van Roon et al., 2010). Visual motor integration and neuro-motor problems, that include perceptual, gross- and fine motor problems further relates to writing, reading, spelling and mathematical problems (Cheatum & Hammond, 2000). The visual system plays an important role in visual motor integration and researchers found ocular-motor control to correlate with learning-related problems and are therefore investigated (Vaughn et al., 2006). The aim of the study was twofold. The first aim was to determine the nature of neuro-motor problems that are present in 7- to 8-year old children with learning-related problems (writing, reading, spelling and mathematical problems). The second aim was to determine the nature of ocular-motor control and visual-motor integration that are present in 7- to 8-year old children with learning-related problems (writing, reading, spelling and mathematical problems). Sixty-eight learners (45 boys and 23 girls) with and without learning-related problems took part in the study. The group with learning-related problems (n=31) consisted of learners that received remedial intervention in Grade 1 and were in Grade 2 during the data collection. The control group (n=37) represented the study group for age and gender with a mean age of 7.5 years (SD=0.43) and had no learning-related problems. The Quick Neurological Screening Test II (QNST-II) and the Sensory Input Systems Screening Test (SISM) were used to determine the state of neuro-motor development and the visual and ocular-motor control status of learners. The Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration - 4th ed. (VMI-4) were used to evaluate the visual-motor integration of learners. The Statistica for Windows 2011 computer program was used to do the data processing (StatSoft, 2011). Differences between learners with and without learning-related problems were determined by an independent t-test. A multi-dimensional representation of learners with learning-related problems were established by means of a correspondence analysis of twoway variance tables with respect to reading, writing, spelling and mathematical problems. Results indicate that statistical as well as practical significant differences were found between learners with and without learning-related problems with respect to neuro-motor, visual-motor integration as well as ocular-motor problems. Neuro-motor problems were found between the two groups in visual, auditory, and tactile perception as well as different gross motor skills and were associated with reading, writing, spelling and mathematical problems. Regarding ocularmotor control and visual-motor integration, statistical- (p≤0,01) as well as practical (d≥0,8) significant differences were found between learners with and without learning related problems in visual-motor integration as well as 10 of the 11 sub-items of the SISM which include the following: fixation with both eyes, fixation with right eye, fixation with left eye, ocular alignment with right eye, ocular alignment with left eye, tracking with both eyes, tracking with right eye, tracking with left eye, vertical tracking and horizontal tracking. It can be concluded from the results that a significant correlation could be found between neuro-motor problems, that includes ocular-motor control as well as visual-motor integration and learning-related problems (reading, writing, spelling and mathematical problems). Neuromotor skills as well as visual-motor integration should therefore be incorporated in intervention of children with learning-related problems.
- Health Sciences