Waardes, houdings, identiteitsbelewenisse en stres in die Suid-Afrikaanse film- en dramabedryf
The South African work environment is characterised by a highly differentiated labour force regarding culture, race, ethnicity, language, gender and school education. Since 1994 the focus has increasingly been on getting the labour corps to function at an equal level. As a result of the historic backlog with regard to training, social development and communication that prevails among the black labour corps, a breeding-ground for racial and/or ethnic conflict and stress can arise. Worldwide cultural differences within the same community are by no means an uncommon phenomenon. Die aim of this thesis was to establish what the nature and impact of values, attitudes, identity experiences and stress is among student groupings at the African School for Film and Dramatic Art (AFDA), as well as to determine the psychometric features of the distinctive measuring instruments. This study was undertaken after a decade of political transition in South Africa within a culturally diverse student population. A once-off cross-section population was used as sample (n = 247). The survey group consisted of two sub groups: black students (n = 80); white students (n = 160). Their terms of study at the AFDA ranged from one to four years. Values were measured by means of the Value Scale of Scholtz (1996). Attitudes were measured on the basis of Du Toit's Contact and Intercultural Perception Scale (1991). Group identity experience was evaluated by means of the Racial/Group Identity Scale of Helms (1993), and the Stress Scale of Van Gram (1981) was also applied. The statistical analyses were done by using the SAS-programme (SAS Institute, 2000). Cronbach alfa coefficients and inter-item correlations were used to determine the internal consistency of the measuring instruments. Exploratory factor analysis was used to establish the construct validity of the scales. Descriptive statistics were applied to analyse the data. Canonical correlation was utilised to analyse the relation between sets of variables. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was applied. Effect sizes rather than statistical inference were utilised to determine the significance of the findings. t-tests were also used. The results were presented in the form of four research articles. These results indicated that a diversity of values, attitudes, identity experiences and stress experiences are present among the two groupings of students. A discrepancy occurred more specifically regarding values as experienced by individuals (especially within group context) and regarding organisational values (Article 1). Within the white grouping, a value pattern came to the fore in which values such as honesty, dependability and respect were very important to the group. They also rated the values reasonableness and thankfulness high. A strong value pattern for the black grouping comes to the fore with values such as respect, honesty, dependability, thankfulness, politeness and hospitality. In both groupings uncertainty prevailed concerning the importance of value within the organisation such as mutual respect, honesty, religion and hospitality. These values will therefore predict how the individual in the group experiences his or her activities, relationship with others, nature and time. The bipolar attitude scale provides an account of how each grouping experiences its own as well as its external group (Article 2). In general, positive attitudes are present from the white grouping towards the black grouping (for instance kind-heartedness, goodness, pleasantness). However, cognitive growth is necessary in the white grouping concerning their perception of the dependability, wisdom, diligence and sense of responsibility of the black grouping. In the one field there seems to be an experience dimension in the white grouping with regard to attitudes, namely that the black grouping always turns up late. Within the black grouping, more negative-attitude tendencies occur towards the white grouping. Fields they find problematic are the dependability, fairness, honesty, helpfulness, sense of responsibility and peacemaking-attempts of the white grouping. The moderated attitudes of the white grouping toward themselves regarding being less ambitious and uncertain about their worth for the organisation, corresponds with how the black group experiences them. An assumption can be made that this attitude probably originates from the policy of affirmative action. Only three group identity phases manifested in the black grouping, while five group identity phases manifested in the white grouping (Article 3). The differences in the phases in the various groupings correspond with the impact of the South African political history on the identity moulding of the distinctive groupings. In the factor analysis, different factors from those in the theory of Helms (1993) were identified. In general, the white grouping is positive concerning their own identity - not shy of being white (90,63%) and feel at ease with other groupings (85%). These findings therefore indicate an established group identity that is developing positively. In the black grouping a positive to very positive tendency prevails that implies that they are experiencing positive identity-development growth. The uncertain vacuum of the black group identity has faded, and instead, internalisation and black self acceptance has crystallised. In both the groupings the impact that values, attitudes and identity experiences have on stress, was divided into the frequency of stress and the intensity of stress that the groups experience in different fields. Both groupings reported high stress frequencies on items such as frustration and anxiety, while the intensity of stress on dimensions such as anxiety substructure and boredom comes to the fore stronger in both groupings. The psychometric features of the measuring instruments were satisfactory. The construct validity of Helms' scale (1993) for the black grouping should be further investigated, seeing that the chronological development of identity moulding perhaps is embodied differently in South Africa with its unique history than elsewhere. Recommendations were made for future research.