Development of a competitive intelligence process framework and survey for cricket coaches
Available studies do not provide a systematic and formalized structure for the sport performance analysis (PA) and coaching domain, according to which activities of coaches and support staff that are related to data collection and analysis for decision making, can be directed. However, in the business competitive intelligence (CI) domain the 4Cs process model of Weiss (2002) may serve as a theoretical framework to investigate the phenomenon of CI in the cricket coaching domain. In view of this background the theoretical objective of this study was to evaluate the relevancy of the business CI process to the sport performance analysis (PA) domain as part of the coaching process in sport and specifically cricket by using a systematic literature review (SLR). The empirical objectives of the study were as follows: to identify the key intelligence topics (KITs) of cricket coaches, using the 4Cs CI process model of Weiss (2002) as a framework and incorporating existing knowledge regarding cricket specific key performance indicators (KPIs); to identify the data collection properties of cricket coaches, using the first stage of the 4Cs CI process model of Weiss (2002) as framework; to provide a conceptual CI framework specifically developed for cricket coaches based on the 4Cs CI business process model as a theoretical foundation and to create a CI survey for cricket coaches by following the proposed five step process of Gehlbach and Brinkworth (2011). To fulfil the above-mentioned objectives, a partially mixed sequential dominant status multi-mode research design was completed in three phases. The first phase consisted of the qualitative dominant phase whereby the SLR was performed and a preliminary interview schedule developed and qualitatively formalised. The second phase also consisted of a qualitative process during which interviews were conducted with high level cricket coaches and their support staff. The constant comparative method (CCM) was used together with the development of a codebook in order to systematically analyse the qualitative interview data through ATLAS.TITM, computer assisted qualitative analysis software. The CCM of continuous and simultaneous interview and data analysis processes were performed until data saturation. The document analysis that was performed as part of the SLR showed substantial agreement between the business CI and the sport PA domains with regard to the four stages of the CI model. Furthermore, the SLR rendered the following five themes for the CI process of both domains: data collection, conversion, communication, countering and the CI process as a whole. The differences and similarities between the two domains were explored within these five themes. Therefore, themes were presented as combined data networks that indicated the occurrence of the CI activities within both domains. Findings of the SLR suggested that the majority of activities within different stages of the business CI process are similar to sport PA activities that coaches follow as part of the coaching process. Despite the applicability of the CI process to the PA domain, clear differences between the two domains were also observed. These differences indicated the need for further research into the specific properties such as data collection activities and the identification of key intelligence needs (KINs), as well as the different stages of the CI process that cricket coaches perform. Interview data was qualitatively analysed and was used to fulfil the second objective of the study, which indicated that cricket coaches' informational needs could be translated into all three of the business type KITs, namely strategic, early warning, and key player KITs. However, coaches identified inadequate exclusive strategic decision and early warning type KITs, and over-emphasized key player KITs. The identification of key performance indicators (KPIs) by coaches as part of the PA domain, were classified as a key player type KIT, since it provides information and a greater understanding of opposition. The comparison of KPIs in light of KITs and its function within the CI process, indicated that KPIs are inadequate to be used exclusively for intelligence creation, but need to be incorporated into the KITs identification and CI process. The identified KITs, with incorporated KPIs, were successfully linked to three out of the four kinds of knowledge which is created as part of the countering stage of the 4Cs CI process model. For the fulfilment of the third objective of the study, data were also analysed qualitatively. The analysis of interview data extended to the whole data collection process and all properties of cricket coaches and support staff regarding these aspects. Overall, coaches indicated that they make use of various sources of information on competitors, own team and the environment. Data collection was usually performed by numerous persons within the team set-up and a variety of information formats were utilised. The main findings indicated that easily available sources were not effectively utilized, data collection processes were not performed in a structured manner and coaches need skill development regarding data collection and analysis. Furthermore, the lack of technology as well as the absence of a person who can collect data and a shortage of skills by the person who is responsible for data collection, were the main challenges coaches face. The fourth objective of the study was achieved by analysing data quantitatively. A tree clustering, single-linkage, 1-Pearson Correlation Coefficient cluster analysis dendrogram of all quantitized coded interview data indices was used to identify five themes, each with sub-categories. The categories were created by conceptually concatenating the clustered codes. Therefore, a CI framework with the following themes was developed for cricket coaches: a) Strategy design, b) Review, c) Information transmission, d) CI process dynamics and e) Information parameters. The themes, together with the inter-relatedness of sub-categories, were described in light of the new framework. The newly developed framework provides coaches with a comprehensive and systematic approach that can be employed to create CI. The newly developed CI framework was used as a foundation to fulfil the fifth objective of the study according to the five step process of Gehlbach and Brinkworth (2011). The five themes identified from the dendrogram were used as subscales, and the categories within each theme were converted into item questions. The CI survey for cricket coaches was quantitatively and qualitatively analysed by a panel of experts which resulted in acceptable content (content validity index (CVI) = 0.99) and face validity. The clarity average score was found to be 0.95. The inter-rater agreement (IRA) values on the representativeness and clarity were 0.96 and 0.82, respectively which is more than the acceptable norm of 0.80. Preliminary factorial validity was calculated to be 0.99, which can be categorised as a very high score. The newly developed CI survey is unique and its use will shed light on the dearth of knowledge regarding coaches' strategy design, review and information transmission processes, and will also indicate how they deal with CI process dynamics and address information parameters. This study is the first of its kind within the sport domain to have investigated the encompassing CI activities of cricket coaches using the business 4Cs CI process model as a framework. The in-depth research regarding similarities and differences between the CI and PA domains, as well as results with regard to the KITs and data collection properties of coaches, aided in the development of the CI framework. The newly developed framework process will guide coaches to focus on competitor analysis in a systematic manner, while the CI survey will aid to identify strengths and weaknesses of coaches during this process.
- Health Sciences