Transdermal delivery of isoniazid and rifampicin by pheroid technology
The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the feasibility of the transdermal delivery of isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RMP) by means of the novel PheroidTM technology system. The application of the latter is being investigated in combination with various actives such as peptides (insulin, human growth hormone), anti-malarial drugs (chloroquine), anti-fungals ketoconazole), local anaesthetics (lidocaine, prilocaine) as well as tuberculostatics (ethambutol, pyrazinamide etc.) via different administration routes at the North- West University. PheroidTM, a stable skin-friendly carrier, comprises of a submicron (200 nm - 2 µm) emulsion type formulation for which previous studies have confirmed the ability to penetrate keratinised tissue, skin, intestinal linings, the vascular system, fungi, bacteria and even parasites. Studies involving an oral PheroidTM formulation containing the current approved regime of four anti-tuberculosis drugs showed improved efficacy results whilst an in vitro analysis of bacterial growth indicated a reduction in drug resistance in multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) strains. Therefore we thought it prudent to ascertain whether or not the PheroidTM system would be able to improve the transdermal delivery of a combination of INH and RMP as a possible treatment against cutaneous tuberculosis (tuberculosis involving the skin). The latter refers to pathological lesions of the skin caused by any one of the following: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis or the bacilli Calmette- Guerin (BCG) vaccine. Demonstration of M. tuberculosis within the infected tissues by traditional acid-fast bacilli (AFB) staining, culture or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirms the diagnosis. CTB lesions are associated with various degrees of one or more of the following ulceration, plaque formation, hyperkeratosis or the presence of necrotic matter. Seeing as C-TB is mostly associated with systemic involvement, current treatment comprises of the standard three/four drug regimens used for pulmonary 'TB in general. Cases of CTB usually show improvement within 1 month of therapy with anti-TB drugs, but complete resolution is only attained after 4 - 6 months. 'The major drawback to current therapy is that patients not only remain a source of infection (viable organisms can still be demonstrated in the lesions), but they also suffer from constant embarrassment due to the disfiguring nature of CTB until these lesions have healed completely. No evidence of an already existing topical formulation of this kind could be found. Therefore in vitro permeation studies were conducted using vertical Franz diffusion cells and female abdominal skin as permeation membrane over a period of 12 hours. Concentrations of 5 mg/ml and 10 mg/ml for isoniazid( INH) and rifampicin (RMP) respectively, were applied to the donor phase suspended in either phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or entrapped in PheroidTM. Permeation studies were conducted at pH 5.5. In vitro penetration of INH and RMP were assayed directly by HPLC. Particle size distribution for rifampicin and entrapment of actives within the PheroidTM carrier system was determined by polarized light and laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) respectively and revealed definite entrapment. Permeation profiles obtained for INH in PheroidTM indicated a biphasic character, whilst that obtained for RMP in PheroidTM showed a triphasic character. The PheroidTM delivery system proved more efficacious for delivery of both anti-tubercular drugs and resulted in greater percentage yield as well as flux values than that for a PBS solution. Furthermore, the PheroidTM formulation was able to deliver, the entrapped INH and RMP in concentrations sufficient to exceed their respective minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC).
- Health Sciences