Synthesis and biological evaluation of 6-substituted coumaranone derivatives and related compounds as monoamine oxidase inhibitors
Van Dyk, Adriaan Sarel
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Parkinson’s disease (PD) is an age related neurodegenerative disorder that presents with both motor and non-motor symptoms. The most common pathological characteristic of PD is the loss of the pigmented dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), with the appearance of intracellular inclusions known as Lewy bodies in the affected neurons. The loss of the SNpc neurons results in a deficiency of dopamine in the nigrostriatal pathway of the brain, and it is this deficiency that is responsible for the motor symptoms of PD. Monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) is predominantly found in the striatum and is responsible for the oxidative metabolism of dopamine. The first-line treatment of PD is dopamine replacement therapy with levodopa, the metabolic precursor of dopamine. Rapid metabolism of levodopa at central and peripheral level, however, hampers its therapeutic potential. MAO-B inhibition enhances striatal dopamine activity by means of inhibiting dopamine metabolism, and MAO-B inhibitors are thus used in the treatment of PD, particularly in combination with levodopa. The aim of this study was to design new potent, reversible MAO inhibitors with selectivity towards MAO-B for the symptomatic treatment of PD. Recent studies have shown that C5-substituted phthalide derivatives are highly potent inhibitors of human MAO-B. Phthalide derivatives were also found to be potent inhibitors of human MAO-A. The structural similarity between phthalide and 3-coumaranone suggests that 3-coumaranone may be a useful scaffold for the design of reversible MAO-B inhibitors. In the present study, 3-coumaranone derivatives were thus synthesised and evaluated as potential MAO-A and MAO-B inhibitors. By reacting 6-hydroxy-3-coumaranone with the appropriate alkylbromide in N,N-dimethylformamide in the presence of potassium carbonate, a series of twenty 3-coumaranone derivatives were synthesised. The structures of the compounds were verified with NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The purities of the compounds were determined by HPLC analyses. To determine the inhibition potencies, the recombinant human MAO-A and MAO-B enzymes were used, and the inhibition potencies were expressed as IC50 values. The results indicated that the 3-coumaranone derivatives are highly potent MAO-B inhibitors. For example, 9 of the 3-coumaranone derivatives inhibited MAO-B with IC50 values < 0.05 μM, with the most potent inhibitor exhibiting an IC50 value of 0.004 μM. Although the 3-coumaranone derivatives are selective MAO-B inhibitors, some compounds were also potent MAO-A inhibitors with the most potent inhibitor exhibiting an IC50 value of 0.586 μM. The reversibility of MAO-B inhibition by a representative inhibitor was examined by measuring the degree to which the enzyme activity recovers after dialysis of the enzyme-inhibitor complex. Since MAO-B activity was almost completely recovered after dialysis, it may be concluded that the 3-coumaranone derivatives bind reversibly to MAO-B. Lineweaver-Burk plots were constructed to show that the representative 3-coumaranone derivative is a competitive inhibitor of MAO-B. To conclude, the 3-coumaranone derivatives are potent, selective, reversible and competitive inhibitors of MAO-B. These compounds may find application in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as PD. Potent MAO-A inhibitors were also discovered, which suggests that 3-coumaranone derivatives may serve as leads for the design of drugs for the treatment of depression. In addition, 3-coumaranone derivatives which inhibited both MAO-A and MAO-B, may have potential application in the therapy of both PD and depressive illness.
- Health Sciences