Aspects of moral education in Bhaca mamtiseni and nkciyo initiation rituals
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Influences on cultural, social, economic and political life of the Bhaca as well as their Interaction with other cultures from within South Africa and other parts of the world have led to the erosion of older traditions and customs resulting in a replacement of values that have promoted immorality, crime and an increase in sexually transmitted diseases among others. Consequently, these forces have resulted in change in the structure of mamtiseni and nkciyo female initiation ceremonies, thereby influencing the musical arts embedded in them. This article examines the educational content of the songs and dances and the role these musical arts play within mamtiseni and nkciyo celebrations expressed by the Bhaca of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The article reveals that despite the influences on mamtiseni and nkciyo female initiation ceremonies it is evident that certain elements have continued to a large extent as they used to be in the pre-colonial times, while others have undergone change to suit the current lifestyle of the people in South Africa. The songs have undergone changes especially in their texts, which have shifted focus from menstruation and marriage to include topical issues of a social nature and wellbeing, and as such the repertoire reduced.